1958 - 1964 | 1965 - 1969 | 1970 - 1992
Carry On Christmas| Carry On Laughing
My, what a juicy looking pear.
Barbara Windsor's fruity line, Carry On Doctor.
The Carry On films have a reputation for being sexist and stereotypical and degrading for women, to extent that they have even been considered by some to be among the most sexist films ever made. However, in an era in which 21st Century Hollywood blockbusters only typically contain one woman per film as the stereotypical helpless damsel in distress, can a series of films featuring a strong female ensemble cast really be considered to be worse? Do the Carry On films cross the line or is it all innocent innuendo? Is the sexism actually in the Carry On films themselves, or in our perception of them? Can you measure misogyny? Are stereotypes sexist and can a woman be seen as sexy without being a sex object?
The Bechdel Test
One established method used to judge whether a film is sexist is the Bechdel Test. This asks whether the film involves two or more named female characters having a conversation1 together that is not about men.
The 'named female character' is intended to differentiate between important and background female characters. As the Carry On series refers to both important male and female characters by their title rather than name, 'named character' has here been defined to include titled characters whose title is a mark of respect. These characters are Matron2 as played by Hattie Jacques and Joan Hickson's 'Sister' in Carry On Nurse, although Carry On Nurse passes the test effortlessly in either case. The lack of names given to people of importance is not gender-biased as important male characters include the nameless Colonel in Carry On Nurse and the Chief in Carry On Spying.
Finally the Bechdel Test does not clarify how it applies to asexual characters such as Doctor Crow3 in Carry On Spying, although it passes regardless. So how do the Carry On films do with the test?
Carry On Films and the Test
We don't sell toothpaste.
Valerie Leon, Carry On Camping
All 31 Carry On films feature at least two named female characters, however only 25 of the 31 films pass the 'have a conversation together not about men' test.
|Type of Carry On||Total #:||# Pass:|
Ignoring clip-show compilation film That's Carry On!, the films can be divided into those set at the time they were made and those with a historical setting. This shows half the historical films fail while every contemporary film passes. The films that fail are:
Carry On Jack (1963)
This features two named female characters, Sally and Peg, who have a conversation, but only about Midshipman Poopdecker.
Carry On Cleo (1964)
This features four named female characters, Calpurnia who stays in Rome, Cleopatra who stays in Egypt, Senna Pod who stays in England and Gloria, a captured slave girl who is given to Calpurnia who talks at and about her, but no two-way conversation takes place.
Carry On Screaming! (1966)
This features four named characters, however Doris Mann is kidnapped and frozen. Emily Bung spends most of her time at her home, but does have a brief conversation with Mrs Parker about whether her husband is having an affair. Valeria spends most of her time in the spooky house and talks about frozen women, but as they are frozen they cannot answer back.
Carry On Don't Lose Your Head (1966)
This features two named female characters, Desirée Dubarry and Jacqueline, but they only discuss the Black Fingernail.
Carry On Follow That Camel (1967)
This features three named characters, Zig-Zig, Lady Jane Ponsonby and Corktip. Though they do not engage in conversation, the looks that Zig-Zig gives Corktip speak volumes.
Carry On Henry (1971)
Queen Anne is executed to begin with, Henry marries then imprisons Queen Marie and plans to have her executed so he can marry Bettina and, as the film ends, meets Catherine Howard. Bettina speaks to Marie but mentions Henry4.
Almost every character in a Carry On film is a stereotype. In Carry On Jack, pirates have eyepatches and sailors have wooden legs. In Carry On Cowboy the villain wears a black hat. Heroes are brave and persistent, love interests need to be won, good triumphs over evil and everyone lives happily ever after. Comedy has long used stereotyping, however what stereotypes are and aren't acceptable changes over time, and everyone has a different opinion. The handsome hero is as much a stereotype as the damsel in distress. This raises the question, are all stereotypes for women automatically sexist?
From Miss Oakley to Misogyny
There can be no doubt whatsoever that the Carry On films' nadir is Carry On Follow That Camel, in the scenes featuring Angela Douglas as Lady Jane Ponsonby. Angela Douglas first appearance in a Carry On film was in Carry On Cowboy in which she played Annie Oakley. She was a strong character; the best gun in Stodge City, she single-handedly fights off an attack on the stagecoach by the stereotypical Indians.
Although Angela Douglas' character's journey across America is as a strong role model, the same cannot be said for her appearance in Carry On Follow That Camel. This is unforgivably misogynist. Travelling from England to Algeria, in that film everyone she encounters on her journey, once they discover she is travelling alone, assaults her while describing it as 'punch your ticket' or 'check your porthole'. This, and Lady Jane's reaction in which she not only does not mind but seems to enjoy the experience, later boasting, 'I'm travelling alone, you know', is clearly unacceptable.
Though Carry On Follow That Camel is by far the worst offender, it is not the only film in the series in which women are presented as objects. Nor is it the only film in the series in which the villain is noted for having his own harem of women who are his personal property, with Carry On Up The Khyber also having women as the villain's property. In fact, in Carry On Up The Khyber it is revealed that the Khasi's women are numbered and tattooed. When it is wrongly believed that the Khasi has cuckolded Sir Sidney Ruff-Diamond, his numerous wives feel obliged to cuckold the Khasi in return, introducing themselves by their number, without any attempt to establish individual identity and motive.
Perhaps the film that most strongly presents women as objects is Carry On Screaming!, in which the villains, Doctor Watt and Valeria, kidnap women and literally turn them into women by transforming them into mannequins. The film was a spoof of popular horror films such as House of Wax (1953), however the film ends with the innocent Emily Bung frozen as a mannequin while Valeria, who was behind the kidnappings, ends up living happily ever after with Detective Sidney Bung, presumably because he found her more attractive.
Carry On Come Ons
I only keep going in there for my shag.
- Sid James discussing tobacco, Carry On Loving
Most women are portrayed as enjoying and craving sexual attention. Those who do not predominantly fall into standard categories. Many are housewives who have forgotten the experience and, when reminded, become eager and willing sexual partners. Housewives such as Senna Pod in Carry On Cleo or Evelyn Blunt in Carry On Abroad fall into this category. Otherwise they are doctors, nurses, sisters or matrons who due to their profession have excessive contact with male patients and experienced their over familiarity. One intriguing exception to this rule is the character of Rosemary in Carry On Girls. She is portrayed as a feminist who dresses in a smart suit throughout, describes the maternity hospital's nursery as 'not my scene' and is mistaken for a man by the police inspector. All these are 1970s film shorthand informing the audience that the character is probably a lesbian. Leaving aside the police inspector being unable to tell whether she is male or female (if Carry On characters could tell the difference between the sexes, none of the drag gags would work after all) at no point are her life choices criticised, challenged or modified.
Any woman, regardless of age, can choose to become sexually attractive to men, for example Miss Dempsey in Carry On Loving. However, any extra effort made by a man wanting to impress a woman will always end in failure, with the harder they try, the more accident-prone and bumbling they become.
Battle of the Sexes
But Never with a Daffodil.
- Matron (Hattie Jacques), Carry On Nurse
Throughout the series it is revealed that attractive women easily manipulate and make fools of the men they encounter. In Carry On Up The Khyber, when the British rescue party sees the harem girls they declare, 'It must be a trap – let's walk into it' and are subsequently captured. Even day-to-day situations involving an attractive woman (Valerie Leon) simply working in camping shop leads to men making fools of themselves; embarrassment combined with an inability to think or talk straight results in Sid Boggle (Sid James) asking for a tube of toothpaste despite knowing perfectly well that camping shops do not sell it.
In 'Carry On Nurse' the nurses encounter an experienced, head-strong and determined colonel. Being a colonel he is a proud leader of men, battle-hardened and tough as nails – yet the nurses defeat him with a daffodil.
And it isn't just young, attractive women who can embarrass and make fools of the men around them. Carry On at Your Convenience ends with the female characters getting the upper hand, quite literally with Vic Spanner's bottom being publicly spanked by his mother (Renée Houston), and the women resolving the tensions between management and workers. When Vic Spanner (Kenneth Cope) asks, Brothers, you're not going to let a bunch of women tell you what to do, are you? the immediate reply is Don't they always?
There is no doubt that the male gaze dominates in the Carry On films, where women are frequently seen as sex objects who gain the attention of the stereotypical dirty old men and are seen to enjoy this attention. The clearest example of this is in Carry On Abroad where numerous characters drink a love potion. When a man drinks it, we see his point of view in which he sees women in their underwear, however we never know what a woman sees if she drinks it.
However receiving this attention is predominantly presented as a choice; female characters can choose to dress in a manner in which they are ignored or change their appearance and manner to attract attention as they wish. The character of June (Jacki Piper) in Carry On Up the Jungle initially is uninterested in male attention and so consequently is told,
You could walk starkers through a Foreign Legion outpost and nothing would happen.
She later chooses to be seen as an attractive female, telling Ug, 'you're different from me, you see. I'm a woman.' Once this has been said, she is viewed as an attractive partner. Similarly, Jenny Grubb (Imogen Hassall) in Carry On Loving is initially described as having 'led a very sheltered life and has had little or no experience of men' and is considered unattractive. She later chooses to embrace her sexuality and so the character Terence Philpott (Terry Scott), who had dismissed her before, suddenly finds her immensely attractive.
However it must be said that no woman chooses to make the opposite transition and, having once been seen as sexually attractive, decide to become undesirable. It appears to be irreversible. This can be seen in Carry On Emmannuelle when Emmannuelle is stalked by the obsessive Theodore. The most extreme example of the male gaze, he photographs her every move, revelling in revealing her affairs to the press.
Yet Theodore is not the only person to possess a camera in the Carry On films. When Sally Martin (Jacki Piper) strips off in front of Bertie Muffet (Richard O'Callaghan) in Carry On Loving assuming he is a photographer and Dawn Brakes (Margaret Nolan) similarly strips in front of photographer Larry (Robin Askwith) in Carry On Girls, both are completely at their ease with themselves while the men they are with become nervous and increasingly panic-stricken.
The most important photograph of the Carry On series appears in Carry On Up the Khyber, and is an example of the female gaze. In that film, the British rule in India is based entirely on the myth that Scotsmen do not wear anything beneath their kilts. Seeking reassurance that this remains true, during a parade a drill takes place in which the men's kilts are lifted, only to tragically reveal that the men are, in fact, wearing pants. Yet Lady Ruff-Diamond watches and photographs the men lifting their kilts and revealing their underwear. This photograph, representing the female gaze, has the power to end British rule and cause a massacre.
I want you to take my knickers down.
- Joan Hickson discussing her pants being raised up a flagpole, Carry On Girls
From Carry On Constable in 1960, the Carry On series has occasionally featured nudity although it has been far more fascinated with underwear. Pants were frequently considered to be trophies, with men's pants displayed alongside other hunting trophies in Carry On Up the Khyber while women's knickers were hoist up flagpoles in both Carry On Girls and Carry On England. So what do the nude scenes in the series reveal about the degree of sexism in the Carry On films?
First of all for purposes of clarity, there are no examples of below the belt frontal nudity in the series. 'Nudity' is being defined as consisting of seeing men or women's bottoms and women's bare breasts, even if only for a frame. Topless men, such as Kenneth Connor in the bath in Carry On Girls or Terry Scott in his loincloth in Carry On Up the Jungle will not be counted here. Nor will the wearing of bikinis, bras or revealing belly dancer outfits, regardless of whether worn by men or women.
The nude scenes can be summarised as:
- Kenneth Connor, Kenneth Williams, Charles Hawtrey and Leslie Phillips' bottoms in Carry on Constable
- Barbara Windsor's breasts (too quick to see) in Carry On Camping
- Joan Sims' body double in shower (from a distance) Carry On Up the Jungle
- Bare bottom of Gilly Grant, credited as Nurse in Bath Carry On Matron
- Barbara Windsor's bottom and one breast briefly in a shower in Carry In Abroad
- Carol Hawkins' and Sally Geeson's back and sides Carry In Abroad
- Vivienne the Stripper (Jenny Cox) shows her breasts in Carry On Behind
- Kenneth Williams' bottom, Carry On Behind
- Elke Sommers' bottom (briefly) Carry On Behind
- Numerous women (except Joan Sims) lie in bed topless and four women go on parade topless in the unedited version of Carry On England
- Suzanne Danielle's bottom and breasts in Carry On Emmannuelle
- Tricia Newby as nurse at marriage guidance clinic flashes her breasts in Carry On Emmannuelle
- Kenneth Williams' bottom, Carry On Emmannuelle
- Sara Stockbridge's bottom, Carry On Columbus
Though the series contains numerous scenes of both men and women wearing women's underwear, when it comes to actual nudity, Kenneth Williams is the actor most frequently seen nude. While many of the scenes, such as the scene of topless women getting out of bed in Carry On England add nothing to the plot and are likely to have been added for titillation or joke purposes, the topless parade in the same film can be viewed as the women using nudity as a form of empowerment to defy the orders of Captain S Melly (Kenneth Connor) who had ordered 'As from this moment skirts will not be worn - battledress trousers will be worn at all times, that is all'.
Adults Adulating Adultery
If you think nine inches is an average one, you've been spoilt
- Rainfall discussion, Carry On Girls
A key focus of the series is men pursuing women. In addition to the young, dashing hero pursing his true love there are older men who try to pursue a less pure, purely sexual relationship with younger women. However this never works out. So for example, the Admiral in Carry On Girls who enjoys molesting women himself receives his comeuppance and is attacked by Hope Springs (Barbara Windsor) in revenge, and also inadvertently molests Peter Potter (Bernard Bresslaw) disguised as a woman. In Carry On Matron Dr Prodd (Terry Scott) is called the 'taxidermist' because of his habit of seducing women, but again gets his comeuppance by being injected in the bottom and later discovers he is molesting a man dressed as a woman. Just as Gladstone Carver (Sid James) had in Carry On Again Doctor. When Sergeant Nocker is in a relationship with Zig-Zig (Joan Sims) but is led astray by Corktip (Anita Harris) in Carry On Follow that Camel, he is knocked unconscious and captured.
Although the series was made against the background of the swinging 60s and sexual revolution, male characters going out of their way to commit adultery never succeed. The lecherous character, typically Sid James, has all his plans to commit adultery thwarted. Either the men are led on and manipulated into doing favours for the objects of their affections, who then go off with someone else, or their plans are thwarted by their wives or girlfriends. Even in Carry On At Your Convenience when both Sid Plummer (Sid James) and Chloe Moore (Joan Sims) are both trapped in loveless marriages and yearn for each other, nothing happens.
If any man who had ever lived had committed adultery it would be Henry VIII, yet not according to Carry On Henry. Though willing to have his wives executed, he refuses to take a mistress, quoting his family motto Never spit on your own doorstep. Although he does pursue other women, he intends to marry Bettina. He does have a romp in the hay with a pleasant peasant after his unconsummated marriage to Marie, however at the time he believed that this marriage was being annulled and so had never existed.
Perhaps the greatest example of man's inability to commit adultery comes in Carry On Up the Jungle. Charles Hawtrey's character King Tonka has been captured by the women-only Lubi-Dubi tribe who have no men of their own and are desperate for a man to mate with all of their most beautiful women, and even then he cannot physically cheat on his wife.
Is All Affair In Love and War?
That said, married women seem able to commit adultery easily and without consequence. While this most notoriously applies to Emmannuelle in Carry On Emmannuelle who has affairs with almost every man she meets, another example is Evelyn Blunt (June Whitfield) in Carry On Abroad. Queen Marie also has an affair with Sir Roger de Lodgerley in Carry On Henry, although this provides another example of how men who aren't interested in love and only in their physical pleasures always get their comeuppance. This is usually in the form of discovering that their intended love interest is actually a man in women's clothing although in Roger de Logerley's case he is tortured on the rack.
In 31 films there are only two cases in which married men commit adultery or have affairs. In Carry On Camping Peter Potter (Terry Scott) is seduced by Sally (Trisha Noble) when feeling neglected, frustrated and trapped with his married life. The other example occurs in Carry On Screaming!, in which Detective Bung (Harry H Corbett) is trying to solve the case of disappearing women. While investigating a spooky house he is seduced by the vamp Valeria (Fenella Fielding). Initially he is punished for this transgression as he is transformed into a mindless monster, but long term his affair results in his living happily ever after with Valeria while his constant nagging wife Emily (Joan Sims) is frozen and trapped as a mannequin. This unbelievably harsh punishment is presented as being a just reward for her earlier attitude towards him, and is even presented as a punishment that she agrees with, as the film ends with her winking to camera.
Curiously, with the single exception of Carry On Screaming!, adultery is always presented as leading to the strengthening of marital bonds. Yet the marital relationships are renewed with a new male-dominance. Following his experience with Sally, Peter Potter renews with passion his relationship with his wife having found confidence that has allowed him to re-establish control, now making decisions on where they will be going on holiday. Similarly in Carry On Abroad, Evelyn Blunt (June Whitfield) has her love for her husband (Kenneth Connor) renewed with passion following her affair with the barman and she suddenly becomes submissive.
It is almost as if the underlying message that the only way to control a wife or re-establish a loving, level playing field in which both can live happy, fulfilled lives is through sex. As well as this occurring in Carry On Camping and Carry On Abroad in which either party has had an affair, it also takes place in Carry On Cleo. In this film Hengist finds a love potion that re-establishes his manhood. When he returns home he uses it to re-establish dominance in the home and his wife treats him with much more love and affection than at the start of the film, when she complied to every conceivable nagging stereotype.
Emmannuelle is the Carry On character with the most sexual freedom, however it is questionable whether or not it is portrayed as a good thing. Emmannuelle pursues numerous affairs, but it is only her husband that she loves. While she refuses to adhere to other people's values or expectations, she does not seem to have her own reasons for her actions either. For instance, in Carry On Emmannuelle a lengthy series of seductions takes place in which she wonders whether any of her husband's male friends might try to assassinate him and decides the best way to prevent this is by sleeping with them all. Although the film was made after the 1960s era of free love, her actions are free from logic as well as free from love.
Keeping Up Appearances
Throughout the film series, women are often judged by their appearance. It isn't the only criterion they are judged by, however it is fair to say that men go out of their way to gaze on women. For instance, Henry (Sid James) in Carry On Henry hatches a number of elaborate plans, each more disastrous than the last, in order to see the flirtatious Bettina (Barbara Windsor) nude, as he will bases his decision on whether or not to marry her based purely on what she looks like naked.
In Carry On Again Doctor, the Moore-Nookey Clinic is an institution providing a slimming serum that makes people thinner; however the clinic is for women only. This implies that only women need worry about their appearance, especially as many of those undergoing the slimming treatment aren't actually overweight to begin with.
The series also has a bathing fetish. Scenes in which women are watched washing in either baths or showers occur in Carry On Regardless, Carry On Cleo in which Cleopatra spends almost all her time in a bath, Carry On Camping, Carry On Up the Jungle, Carry On Matron, Carry On Henry, Carry In Abroad, Carry On Behind and Carry On Emmannuelle. Carry On Jack contains a scene in which Sally, disguised as Albert, is about to be stripped and given a bath. However, men are similarly frequently seen washing too, in Carry On Constable, Carry On Camping, Carry On Up the Khyber, Carry On Henry, Carry on Abroad and Carry On Behind. In many of these they are seen or spied on in the bath by women, with even the sanctity of their own bathrooms not safe from intrusion.
One of the strangest sexist episodes in a Carry On film occurs in Carry On Girls when a new public convenience is opened. This is only a Gents and there are no Ladies facilities, and no explanation for this is given. Understandably local women are peeved and announce that they will squat in the toilet in protest until the situation is resolved, but no further mention is given to this protest or the town's toilet situation at all. Although this public toilet is for men only, there are also women-only spaces in the Carry On films. These typically are harems, although there is also the Vestal Virgins' temple. While we are informed it is death for men to enter these safe spaces, inevitably they end up being the place that the series' heroes hide in, usually while disguised as women.
There is Nothing Like a Dame
Throughout the Carry On films the characters regularly disguise themselves as members of the opposite sex.
- Bernard Bresslaw: 5 - Carry On Doctor, Carry On Up the Jungle, Carry On Matron, Carry On Girls, Carry On Dick
- Peter Butterworth: 5 - Carry On Screaming!, Carry On Follow That Camel, Carry On Up the Khyber, Carry On Dick, Carry On Emmannuelle
- Roy Castle: 1: Carry On Up the Khyber
- Kenneth Connor: 4 - Carry On Constable, Carry On Cabby, Carry On Cleo, Carry On England
- Kenneth Cope: 1 - Carry On Matron
- Bernard Cribbins: 2 - Carry On Jack, Carry On Spying
- Jim Dale: 3 - Carry On Spying, Carry On Cleo, Carry On Don't Lose Your Head
- Charles Hawtrey: 4 - Carry On Nurse, Carry On Constable, Carry On Up the Khyber, Carry On Again Doctor
- Sid James: 3 - Carry On Don't Lose Your Head, Carry On At Your Convenience, Carry On Dick
- Terry Scott: 2 - Carry On Up the Khyber, Carry On Up the Jungle
- Sara Crowe: 1 - Carry On Columbus
- Angela Douglas: 1 - Carry On Follow That Camel
- Juliet Mills: 1 - Carry On Jack
- Dany Robin: 1 - Carry On Don't Lose Your Head
- Barbara Windsor: 1 - Carry On Dick
As you can see it is far more prevalent in the film series for men to dress as women than women to dress as men.
There are numerous references to Bristol throughout the Carry On series. Both Bettina in Carry On Henry and Lady Francis in 1973's Carry On Christmas are called 'Lady ? from Bristol'. Model Goldie Locks in Carry On Again Doctor models for Bristols' Bouncing Baby Food while in Carry On England reference is made to a pair of Bristols, referring to the aircraft. As 'Bristol' is Cockney rhyming slang for breasts (Bristol City, titty), this is an example of immature humour.
However giving female characters silly names is not unique to the Carry On series, with James Bond famously calling characters Pussy Galore and Plenty O'Toole. So Carry On Up the Khyber features a character called 'Busti' while Carry On Teacher has Miss Allcock. Yet men too have ridiculous names, such as Lyons in Carry On Emmannuelle who is only ever called 'Loins' and Inigo Tinkle in Carry On Up the Jungle.
Beauty is in the Eye of the Bodybuilder
In the 1970 Miss World contest, feminists throwing flour bombs and tomatoes attacked Bob Hope. This event was the inspiration for Carry On Girls, in which a seaside town holds a beauty contest which is successfully sabotaged by the local feminist movement. On release the film was criticised because it featured a beauty contest, albeit a sabotaged one, and was considered highly sexist. It is true that stereotypes are present throughout the film, right down to the feminists being seen burning bras. Overall the focus is less on the girls taking part in the contest but more on the reaction to it. This raises the question, is a film about the feminist reaction to a beauty contest more, less or equally as sexist as a film about a beauty contest?
While in beauty contests women are judged on their physical attributes, and many successful contestants have used this to launch film careers5, bodybuilding is completely different. In body building, men are judged on their physical attributes, and many successful contestants have used this to launch film careers6. Carry On Emmannuelle features a body builder named Harry Hernia (body Howard Nelson, voice Kenneth Connor). Emmannuelle judges Harry Hernia purely on his torso.
Roles for Women
I can do a man's job, and I will too, if it's interesting enough.
- Liz Fraser's character Delia King in Carry On Regardless
What roles have women played in the Carry On films? The following list is in order of appearance :
Bride, NAAFI girls, army doctor, army captain, matron, nurses, hospital doctor, wives, girlfriends, mothers, maths teacher, PE teacher, school inspector, schoolgirls that teachers consider capable of constructing a time bomb, police sergeant, woman police constable, drunk, deaf old woman, housewife in underwear, woman in shower, nosy neighbour, secretary, Helping Hands (highly adaptive agency temps), neglected housewife, secretary, train passenger, cruise ship passengers, canteen worker, taxi drivers, manager of successful taxi firm, bar wench, naval officer, spy, brothel madam, belly dancers, femme fatale and/or double agent, Amazonian guards in underground headquarters of a sinister organisation, cavewoman, nagging housewife, household slave, slave owner, Queen of Egypt, salon owner, secretary, squaw, chorus and Can-Can girls, gunslinger, love interest, victim, nagging wife, mannequin, vamp, gold-digger, café owner, belly dancer, harem girl, bride, wife, mother, matron, midwife, nurse, sister, patient, princess, wife, girlfriend, nudist, school girl, school teacher, wealthy widow, model advertising baby food, secretary, receptionist, business partner, widow, explorer on expedition, lady's maid, Amazonian warriors, English teacher, queen, wife, self-employed corset maker, dating agency co-owner, fake computer operator, model, sausage-stuffing factory worker, housekeeper, queen, buxom lass, ceramics factory workers, mother, landlady, housewife, secretary, canteen worker, unrequited love interest, matron, pregnant women, nurse, sister, glamorous film star, barmaid, landlady, holiday rep, hotel cook, brothel madame, councilwoman, hotelier, mayor's wife, beauty queen, model, publicity company employee of some sort, matron, nurse, wife, housekeeper, maid, entertainers, highwayman, butcher, internationally renowned Roman archaeology expert, tourists, ATS (Auxiliary Territorial Service) anti-aircraft gunners, army sergeant, army corporal, ambassador's wife, cook, housekeeper, queen, spy, lady's maid, cabin boy.
This shows that there are a wide variety of different roles that women play in the series, but perhaps the only important question to ask each one is, 'is this role a positive role model?' There is no denying that many female characters in the series exist solely to allow the male characters the opportunity to saw 'phwoar!' Neither side of these encounters can be said to be a positive role model. However many of the female characters can be considered to be fulfilling positive functions in society and are looked on by other characters with respect. There are women doctors, nurses, police constables, councilwomen and teachers. The matron is a pillar of society that everyone else in the hospital looks up to and respects. There is the owner of a taxi company that can out-compete an established and experienced taxi company. There are several queens, warriors, a sergeant and a world-renowned archaeologist. So there can be no denying that these representations can counterbalance the less-positive 'phwoar factor'.
In the James Bond film series to date (2018), there have been 29 actors who have played a recurring character. Of these 29 actors to play a recurring character, 5 have been women7. Additionally, Maud Adams is the only woman to have played two different characters8. This is largely because women are considered to be decorative and disposable, with a new beautiful young actress required in every film.
In comparison, 14 out of 35 recurring Carry On actors who have appeared in more than four Carry On films have been women. Also, unlike in the James Bond films where the actresses are almost all in their 20s and 30s, Carry On films celebrate women aged from 18 to 80, with actresses such as Joan Hickson and Esma Cannon both over 50 at the time of their first appearance in the series.
|Eric Barker||1958, 1960, 1964, 1978||4||-||-|
|Kenneth Connor MBE||1958-1964, 1970-1978||17||3||12|
|Jim Dale MBE||1963-1967, 1969, 1992||11||-||-|
|Jack Douglas||1972-1978, 1992||8||2||12|
|Liz Fraser||1961-1963, 1975||4||-||-|
|Peter Gilmore||1963-1971, 1992||11||-||-|
|Joan Hickson OBE||1959-1960, 1970, 1973||5||-||-|
|Julian Holloway||1967-1971, 1976||8||1||-|
|Hattie Jacques||1958-1963, 1967-1974||14||2||1|
|Dilys Laye||1962, 1964, 1967, 1969||4||-||-|
|Valerie Leon||1968-1970, 1972-1973||6||1||-|
|David Lodge||1961, 1973-1976||5||-||7|
|Victor Maddern||1960-1961, 1964, 1978||5||-||3|
|Margaret Nolan||1965, 1971-1974||6||-||-|
|Brian Oulton||1959-1960, 1964, 1969||4||1||-|
|Bill Owen MBE||1958-1963||4||-||-|
|Jon Pertwee||1964-1966, 1992||4||-||-|
|Leslie Phillips CBE||1959-1960, 1992||4||-||-|
|Terry Scott||1958, 1968-1972||7||2||-|
|Marianne Stone||1959, 1963, 1966-67, 1971-1975||9||-||1|
|Dame June Whitfield DBE||1959, 1972-1973, 1992||4||-||-|
|Dame Barbara Windsor DBE||1964, 1967-1969, 1972-1974||10||4||8|
The thirteen actors in bold are recognised as the main Carry On stars.
While in most film series it is common practice for the young male characters to recur and a new, attractive woman to feature in each film, after Jim Dale left, it was more likely that a new male actor would feature in each film (Roy Castle, Julian Holloway, Richard O'Callaghan, Kenneth Cope, Robin Askwith). The actresses playing the young female love interest role were far more consistent.
The Pay is the Thing
Perhaps one of the most important measures of how highly rated women in Carry On films were is by examining the issues of pay and top billing. Top billing identifies which actor played the film's principal character. That top billing matters to actors can be seen in the fact that Charles Hawtrey was fired from the Carry On series because of his obsession with it. Having already received a guarantee that he would always be billed in the top three, Hawtrey demanded top billing for the third episode of Carry On Christmas and refused to appear unless he received it, which led to his being dropped entirely from the series. Of the 31 films, only one had a woman who was top-billed, Elke Sommer for Carry On Behind9. However television was slightly fairer. Hattie Jacques was top-billed for one of the four episodes of Carry On Christmas. Of the 13 episodes of Carry On Laughing Joan Sims was top-billed three times and Barbara Windsor twice.
Pay was a highly contentious issue, with producer Peter Rogers notoriously stingy, saying I would do anything for my stars except pay them. With the complete wage bill for Carry On Sergeant at £10,000, pay was kept low, with the minimum an actor (as opposed to an extra) would be paid for appearing in a Carry On film a mere £25. Of the two highest paid actors to appear in a Carry On film, one was a woman; both Phil Silvers and Elke Sommer were paid £30,000 for their appearances. In second place was £12,000 paid to Harry H Corbett for starring in Carry On Screaming!, followed by £9,000 paid to Frankie Howerd for his appearances. Of the main Carry On team rather than guest stars, the highest wage was £6,000 for Kenneth Williams in Carry On Emmannuelle while he and Sid James were paid a standard £5,000 for every other film from Carry On Cruising (1963) onward. Charles Hawtrey's wage was typically in the £3-4,000 range, just above Kenneth Connor, Hattie Jacques, Jim Dale and Barbara Windsor, whose salary was usually £3,000 while Joan Sims was paid a standard £2,500, the same as Bernard Bresslaw, Jack Douglas and Terry Scott while Peter Butterworth never earned more than £2,000.
How does Top Billing compare with the number of scenes each of the main Carry On actor was in? Kevin Snelgrove in his book The Official Carry On Facts, Figures and Statistics measured the average number of scenes each Carry On actor was in. This figure can be seen in the 'scenes per film' column. Using this figure we can compare it to each actor's average billed position, from 1st billed to 33rd.
|Actor||# Films||Highest Billing||Lowest Billing||Average||Scenes per film|
We can therefore compare the order of the number of scenes each actor was in with their rank in the billing table, to see if women were being disproportionately billed.
|Scenes per Film||Billing Order|
What we can see is that though no woman makes the top five in either billing or number of scenes order, Joan Sims actually has a better billing than her average number of scenes would suggest, Barbara Windsor remains the same and Hattie Jacques is billed one place lower. Patsy Rowland, who appears in the fewest scenes, has the worst average billing although the worst individual film's billing by far is Terry Scott, who was billed 33rd out of 50 in Carry On Sergeant.
Full Cast and Crew
Of course, the recurring actors and actresses are only part of the story, with the behind-the-scenes crew also influencing the finished films. It is no surprise that in the period between the 1950s and 1970s, the film industry worldwide was dominated by men, which is reflected in the Carry On film series.
Of the important production crew roles, the producer and director were both male. All writers, composers, directors of photography (cinematographer), camera operators, art directors, assistant directors, production managers, editors and sound/dubbing editors across all 31 films were male. The make-up artist for 23 films was Geoffrey Rodway however two films (6.4%) had make-up by women. Of the nine films that credited a Casting Director, women had the role on seven occasions. Crew roles exclusively performed by women were Continuity, Hairdressing and Costume Designer.
The following is based on research by Kevin Snelgrove in The Official Carry On Facts, Figures and Statistics (2008) and takes into account everyone who worked on a Carry On film down to the last extra and lowliest credited crew job.
|Carry On Sergeant (1958)||45||5||16||4|
|Carry On Nurse (1959)||25||20||17||4|
|Carry On Teacher (1959)||12||6||13||4|
|Carry On Constable (1960)||21||15||12||5|
|Carry On Regardless (1961)||40||17||13||4|
|Carry On Cruising (1962)||17||5||17||5|
|Carry On Cabby (1963)||19||12||18||3|
|Carry On Jack (1963)||19||10||16||3|
|Carry On Spying (1964)||19||17||17||4|
|Carry On Cleo (1964)||22||18||15||3|
|Carry On Cowboy (1965)||27||21||18||3|
|Carry On Screaming! (1966)||15||5||18||3|
|Carry On Don't Lose Your Head (1966)||16||15||18||3|
|Carry On Follow That Camel (1967)||23||15||16||3|
|Carry On Doctor (1967)||21||17||16||3|
|Carry On Up the Khyber (1968)||21||21||18||3|
|Carry On Camping (1969)||14||20||16||3|
|Carry On Again Doctor (1969)||18||22||15||3|
|Carry On Up the Jungle (1970)||14||9||15||3|
|Carry On Loving (1970)||27||18||17||3|
|Carry On Henry (1971)||25||9||17||3|
|Carry On at Your Convenience (1971)||16||11||17||3|
|Carry On Matron (1972)||14||19||17||4|
|Carry On Abroad (1972)||16||10||17||2|
|Carry On Girls (1973)||16||21||18||3|
|Carry On Dick (1974)||21||11||22||5|
|Carry On Behind (1975)||21||21||15||3|
|Carry On England (1976)||21||12||20||4|
|That's Carry On! (1977)||46||28||N/A||N/A|
|Carry On Emmannuelle (1978)||33||12||20||4|
|Carry On Columbus (1992)||43||8||58||24|
Films with an equal or greater number of actresses appear in bold. Unsurprisingly the medical Carry Ons with their plethora of nurses score highly in the number of women appearing in minor roles, but overall the pattern is clear. The crew figures also reveal that at a time when filmmaking worldwide was extremely male-dominated, the Carry On films were no exception.
Gender of Title
If we look at the Carry On film titles, is there a gender bias? The titles fall under the categories of names, placenames, job titles/descriptions and other. Names can easily be divided into masculine and feminine while Places such as England, Abroad, the Khyber and Jungle are obviously gender-neutral. How can job titles be defined?
Perhaps the fairest way to divide the job titles by gender is by using the Carry On films' own criterion to do so. Do the Carry On films consider the job in question to be male-only, female-only or one which they have shown both named men and named women doing? So for film title Carry On Teacher, both named male and female characters are teachers in the film, so the Carry On series itself considers 'Teacher' neutral. Carry On Sergeant is another job title, with army sergeants appearing in four films10. All four feature male sergeants, however Carry On England also features Sergeant Tilly Willing played by Judy Gleeson, so the Carry On film series considers an army sergeant to be a role both men and women can undertake.
The series features both male and female police constable characters, cab drivers, spies and so forth. The Carry On series brought us two named female doctors, Captain Clark, Royal Army Medical Corps doctor played by Hattie Jacques appeared in Carry On Sergeant while Carry On Nurse brought us Leigh Madison's Doctor Winn medicine woman, so Carry On Doctor and Carry On Again Doctor are neutral too.
Five film titles appear in the male list. Of these, Henry, Dick and Columbus are named after male historical figures - Henry VIII, Dick Turpin and Christopher Columbus - and so are clearly male. The other two are less straightforward. No character called Jack appears in Carry On Jack, which instead derives its name from sailors being commonly nicknamed Jacks. Does this nickname derive from Jack being a common name, in the same way that British soldiers are nicknamed 'Tommy', or from the fact that onboard ships there are stays, lines and ropes sailors need to winch and jack? If the latter, it is worth noting that Sally (Juliet Mills) successfully impersonates a midshipman. Similarly it could be argued that Carry On Cowboy should be gender neutral as character Annie Oakley is the best shot in Stodge City, single-handedly fighting off a stereotypical Indian attack. However as she never interacts with cows can she truly be considered a cowboy?
Similarly, five film titles appear in the female list. Cleo and Emmannuelle are named after female characters, and only women, predominantly Hattie Jacques but also once Joan Hickson, play a matron. However it is possible to argue that 'nurse' and 'girls' should be gender neutral. In many of the films a male character disguises himself as a woman. Does this mean that men can be counted as girls? Similarly, although there are no male nurses, men disguise themselves as female nurses. Charles Hawtrey's character briefly disguises himself as a female nurse in Carry On Nurse while in Carry On Matron, Kenneth Cope's character is disguised as a female nurse for a substantial period, successfully performing the duties of a nurse by delivering triplets.
Overall it is difficult to come to any other conclusion that the film titles alone cannot provide a definitive answer to the question, 'Are the Carry On films sexist?'
East or West, Home is Best
It is fascinating to see how the depictions of home life change during the Carry On series' main run. The very first scene in the first film of the series is of a wedding, while the last scene of Carry On Emmannuelle is that of a mother having given birth. The early films, such as Carry On Constable portray home life as quite glamorous, with young housewives ironing in their underwear or showering nude12. Yet as the series progresses, the housewives become older and grumpier, such as Emily Bung (Joan Sims) in Carry On Screaming!, or lazier and less interested in housework or their husbands, such as Beattie Plummer (Hattie Jacques) in Carry On at Your Convenience. Instead of wanting desperately to spend time with their wives, such as Charlie Sage (Bob Monkhouse) in Carry On Sergeant, husbands start to plan on getting away from them, planning on trips without them, such as Sid James' characters in Carry On Abroad and Carry On at Your Convenience.
In conclusion, while there is no doubt that the Carry On film series is sexist to a degree, it is clearly and demonstrably less sexist than many 21st Century Hollywood blockbusters.