A Short History of the United States of America

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America is the only country that went from barbarism to decadence without civilization in between.

-Oscar Wilde

America’s history is a long one, but that’s what you get when you make countries... history.

Let us start, for now, at the beginning of time. The earth spun out and formed a planet. Over time, continents and volcanoes formed. The pacific ocean was filled, and volcanoes lined the coasts around it, creating what is now called the Ring of Fire. Tectonic plates fought each other into mountains.

The North American plate slid into place, and though there were some discrepancies along the lines, human beings began to evolve around the world. There were humans in almost every continent, and especially Europe, when Christopher Columbus was dispatched to find a route to the Asia through the pacific. However, he bumped into North America, and sent back his news to Spain. The new continent was named ‘America’ after Amerigo Vespucii (not Amerigo, as it was the tradition was to have a continent name in the feminine), another explorer with a claim to discovery of North America. In the blink of an eye, there were settlers along the east side of the Atlantic. They met a number of indigenous cultures that were scattered all around the new world.

The settlement of Jamestown was set up to seek gold and a passage to Asia in 1607. A colony of Roanoke was a disaster. Jamestown ended up finding a huge potential in producing tobacco, which would be the main cash crop of the south for many many years to come. However, labour shortages induced the people there to resort to indentured service. When Nathaniel Bacon incited a rebellion, planters saw the opportunity in slavery - helpless, cheap people without arms.

In 1620, the Pilgrims, who left England to seek religious freedom, got off their ship, the Mayflower onto Plymouth Rock and set up the Mayflower Compact, in which they agreed to live by a majority rule for the general good. About a majority of them died by the first winter, but the survivors celebrated the first Thanksgiving with friendly Indians led by Squanto.

In 1628, the Puritans, a larger group of people who wanted religious freedom, established a settlement in Salem, Massachusetts, and quite a few other settlements, such as Boston.

Colonial Times

The ships travelled through the Atlantic at a regular rate, and the colonies grew gradually. In 1630, a colonial assembly was created to share power with a governor who was appointed by England’s king. All the grants England had issued accrued to become a significantly large area with a growing population. There were 13 colonies - from what is now Maine (then a portion of the colony of Massachusetts) to Georgia. There were three distinct regions-

  • New England included Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island and Connecticut and the cites of Providence and Boston. Farmland wasn’t great, so whaling and fishing was a prominent employer. Naturally, with the need for fishing and whaling, shipbuilding was an important piece of the economy too.

  • The Middle Colonies were New York, Delaware, New Jersey and Pennsylvania. Cities included New York and Philadelphia. The Middle Colonies had better farmland than New England, so wheat became an important product.

  • The Southern Colonies were Virginia, Maryland, North Carolina, South Carolina and Georgia with the ports of Baltimore, Charleston and Jamestown. In the south, agriculture, especially tobbacco, was the most common export along with cotton and indigo.

At the middle of the 18th century, the colonies were made up of about a million and a half citizens. The people were generally along the Atlantic Coast, and some states didn’t even bother with establishing borders that were too far inland. People began to look back at the Virginia House of Burgesses and the Mayflower Compact - early forms of self-government. Each colony had a different type of government - some were controlled by the King entirely, some mostly owned by individuals, and some were left to themselves. Basically, each state had a governor, a council and an assembly. For a law to pass, it had to be approved by the assembly, governor and England.

In New Hampshire, Massachusetts, New York, New Jersey, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina and Georgia, the governor was appointed by the King, and he appointed his council, with the assembly elected. In Maryland, Delaware and Pennsylvania, the owner or owners of the colony appointed the governor, who selected his council and the assembly was elected. In Rhode Island and Connecticut, the governor, the council and the assembly were all elected by the citizens. Of course, in each state there were some restrictions on who could be elected.

As the south grew, slavery grew as well. One of the worst chapters in the history of America is the slave trade, and the continuing demand for it in the south. None of the colonies were entirely blameless in this - though the south received most of the slaves, the slave trade was helped in part by the New England sailors. Another dark chapter of American history is the way the country handled the native peoples - sending them from their land with force.

Several small wars were fought in each of the regions, such as King William’s War, Queen Anne’s War, and a large one, the French and Indian War. The rich and useful Ohio country was contested between the French and the English. In 1754, a young Virginian officer named George Washington led a group of his countrymen into the fight. After slaughtering a few too many Frenchmen, Washington was forced to set up Fort Necessity in anticipation of a French response. He was forced to surrender.

The effort under Washington was not going very well, so the English pumped as much of their resources as possible into the war, and captured Fort Duquesne, Ticonderoga, and the Canadian cities of Quebec and Montreal. The war ended with the Treaty of Paris, in which the French gave up all its land east of the Mississippi except for the city of New Orleans.

After the treaty, a group of Indians under Pontiac set out to destroy the British control in the west, but it was put down. As this unfolded, the King of England issued the Proclamation of 1763 to end colonial expansion west of the Appalachian Mountains. Britain also set harsh taxes on the colonies to pay off the debt that it met by financing the French and Indian War. Americans weren’t happy with this, and people began to dream of independence.

With more taxes and unpopular decisions by the crown, Americans grew more and more favourable to rebellion. The tighter grip on the colonies were choking them - for instance, the Quartering Act made colonists provide their houses for use by British soldiers. The Sugar Act and the Stamp Act raised taxes pretty high. Merchants couldn’t pay the Sugar Act and turn a profit, people refused to allow soldiers live in their homes and the Stamp Act was viciously attacked and hated by many colonists. A group calling themselves the Sons of Liberty was organized, and they kept themselves busy by attacking tax collectors.

A Congress of delegates from nine colonies was assembled over the Stamp Act, and they sent a protest to King George, believing that the colonies should tax the colonists - not England. Colonial merchants boycotted London goods, which hurt England. The Stamp Act was repealed, but in its place came a demoralizing law saying that the colonies were subject to the authority of the British.

After this, Charles Townsend became the British Chancellor of the Exchequer and England instituted duties on certain goods going into the colonies. Many Americans either smuggled the goods in or simply refused to buy them.

Virginia and Massachusetts emerged as hotbeds of rebellion. The Virginia House of Burgesses said that the colonial governments should be the ones to tax the colonists. In Boston, there was so much energy for rebellion that British troops were stationed to keep the peace and uphold the laws. Unfortunately, as Bostonians had to provide homes for the troops, they were something less than peaceful. On 5 March, 1770 as a group of people taunted British soldiers near the Customs House, soldiers fired on the colonists, and five people were shot badly. The British government responded by repealing all the taxes except for the tax on tea - after all, they couldn’t be seen as giving up the right to tax the colonies.

One might think that with a tax on only one thing, the colonists would leave well enough alone. But the Americans, still outraged by the Boston Massacre and despite the repeal of most taxes, began organizing. Samuel Adams founded the Committees of Correspondence, which was supposed to keep communications open between colonists on British activities and keep information flowing, as well as to incite rebellion. In the Committees there emerged several future leaders.

In 1773, the Tea Act was passed, which threatened to destroy the profits of the tea merchants in the colonies. Naturally, the people responded. On 16 December, about 50 men of the Sons of Liberty group disguised as Mohawk Indians went onto three ships in Boston Harbor and threw all the British tea in the ships into the water. Now known as the ‘Boston Tea Party’, it outraged the British government.

As a response to the Boston Tea Party, the British passed the ‘Intolerable Acts’ in 1774, which closed Boston Harbor, destroyed self-government in Massachusetts and had the right of assembly restricted. They believed these would punish and demoralize Massachusetts, but they had the opposite effect, and the colonies came together in protest. The Virginia House of Burgesses called for each of the colonies to send representatives to form a united protest.

The first Continental Congress was made up of 56 delegates of each of the colonies except for Georgia. In Philadelphia, they declared the Intolerable acts null and void, declared a boycott against Britain, asked residents of Massachusetts not to pay taxes and make a militia up, protests to King George and planned another meeting. In turn, Britain sent more troops into America.

You Say you Want a Revolution...

The British learned of an arsenal at Concord, Massachusetts and sent about 700 men to raid it. However, the colonists had planned ahead to alert the ‘minutemen’1 guarding the area. A light from the Old North Church alerted two men, Paul Revere and William Dawson that the British were mobilizing. They rode on horses to alert the people and militia men of the British advance.

The British met a force about a tenth its size at Lexington, and were able to move on to Concord. The Americans sent the British back, and the minutemen in all the towns hurt the British armies. There were about 300 British casualties.

The Second Continental Congress began in Philadelphia on 10 May, 1775. It made several important decisions. George Washington, for his experience in the French and Indian wars, was appointed commander of American forces, it asked Britain not to attack the colonies again and asked each of the colonies to send troops to assist those in Massachusetts.

The next major conflict was the battle of Bunker Hill. The colonist soldiers were entrenched around Boston at Bunker Hill and Breed’s Hill. The Americans lost the hills after three charges, but the British suffered heavy casualties. In July, America sent the ‘Olive Branch Petition’, to reach an agreement with Britain. It didn’t truly want independence yet, many people just wanted the taxes repealed. The King turned the petition away, and declared the colonies were in revolt.


We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness.

-The Declaration of Independence

The Second Continental Congress met again in May after this news, and moved to draft a declaration of independence. Thomas Jefferson, Benjamin Franklin, John Adams, Robert Livingston and Roger Sherman were assigned to the task of drafting the document. On 4 July, 1776 the Congress adopted the Declaration of Independence, and said it was independent from Britain.

The American Revolution carried on. Ethan Allen and his Green Mountain Boys took Fort Ticonderoga and the British left Boston to move up into Canada. General Howe of the British took New York City. However, Washington scored victories at Trenton and Princeton after crossing the Delaware River.

The British decided to bring all their forces together to control the Hudson River Valley, but this didn’t work. Burgoyne and Washington faced off at Saratoga, and Burgoyne surrendered, which ended up as the turning point of the Revolution. Soon after, the French signed a treaty with the Americans to support the cause.

In 1781, Lord Cornwallis moved through the south to attack Virginia. The only forces to oppose him were under Marquis de Lafayette, and he managed to delay Cornwallis. Washington and the French general Rochambeau moved into Virginia and the French navy took control of Chesapeake Bay, trapping Cornwallis. He was completely surrounded, and had to surrender at Yorktown. A few insignificant battle were fought after this, but the war was basically over and America was independent. The treaty of Paris was signed between America and Britain in 1783, and the new country not only gained its independence but rights to the Ohio River Valley and fishing rights in Canadian waters.


We the People of the United States, in Order to form a more perfect Union, establish Justice, insure domestic Tranquility, provide for the common defence, promote the general Welfare, and secure the Blessings of Liberty to ourselves and our Posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America.

-The US Constitution

A revolution isn’t complete until you set up a new government, and the first one was the Articles of Confederation. It gave most of the power to the states, with the national Congress being rather weak. However, the articles proved to be flawed, and a new government had to be created.

In May, 1787, 55 delegates met in Philadelphia. The greatest political and war leaders were present. James Madison was an avid notetaker and full of ideas. George Washington was President of the convention. Benjamin Franklin was the most senior among them - into his eighties by this time. Alexander Hamilton, the foremost immigrant, was also there. The most notable absence was Thomas Jefferson, the author of the Declaration of Indepedence, who was serving as minister to Spain.

The meetings were long and hot. They had to be conducted in secret, and the door was shut. Tension often ran high, and passion higher. Whenever the debate was becoming too heated, Ben Franklin, thought to be the wisest as he was the eldest, would calm the delegates with a funny anecdote. The presence of George Washington, the living legend, added credibility and dignity to the convention.

They slowly wrote out a new document detailing the future government of the United States. James Madison contributed many of the ideas, but there were some difficult issues. States with large populations would prefer a Congress based on representatives - with more representatives from states with more people. Smaller states didn’t want to be forgotten, so they wanted equal representation for each state.

A great compromise was worked out, where there would be two houses of Congress - one with its representatives determined by the population of the state and one with two of its representatives coming from each state. Once this was agreed upon, another issue arose. Since each state wanted more representation than everyone else, and slaves made up a sizeable portion of southern populations, the slave states wanted slaves to count in their number of people to determine how many representatives they received. It was decided that for every five slaves, three would count towards representation.

Many other elements of the American government were decided, and it continued to be usable for many years after, because it could be amended by the Congress with the ratification of the states. In fact, this is just how the Constitution came into place. Each state eventually agreed to the Constitution, with most of the greatest leaders of the time supporting it. It was ratified once it was promised to be amended to contain a bill of rights, and after Alexander Hamilton, John Jay and James Madison published ‘The Federalist Papers’.

The Republic

The first President was elected in 1789, and it was George Washington, with the Vice President as John Adams. He served for two terms, and the president after him was John Adams. In his farewell address, Washington called on America to avoid foreign treaties and political parties. During the presidency of John Adams, the Democratic-Republicans (known as the Republicans for short, but eventually becoming what are the modern Democrats) grew in power and in order to keep them from taking over the Federalists, they passed the infamous Alien and Sedition Acts, which made it harder for immigrants (who would be favourable to the Republicans) to vote and made it illegal to speak ill of the government.

In the election of 18002, Thomas Jefferson, the leader of the Republicans, became President. This was the first peaceful handover from one party to the other in American history. During Jefferson’s time, the Louisiana Territory was bought from France at a light price.

Britain and France fought over the ports of America, and kept the new country from trading freely. Jefferson got tired of it, and passed the Embargo Act of 1807, which made it illegal for American ships to trade in foreign ports. Smuggling made this somewhat ineffective, but trade resumed with all countries except Britain and France soon. In 1809, James Madison took the Presidency, and he was rather annoyed with Britain. They had been forcing American soldiers into their navy, encouraging Indian resistance in the west, and prevented foreign trade with other countries. America declared war on Britain on 18 June, 1812.

The War of 1812

The War of 1812 was probably an ill-advised one. The country wasn’t nearly strong enough to win a war with Britain, and once Britain concluded its war with Napoleon Bonaparte in 1814 it was able to bring its resources against America. The British destroyed the new capital city of Washington DC. The first lady herself saved many of the important documents as the British burned the White House.

The most important American victory in the war was the Battle of New Orleans, in which US troops under General Andrew Jackson captured New Orleans, and suffered 200 times less casualties than the British. Remarkably, the battle was fought after the Treaty of Ghent ended the war, so it did not need fighting. The treaty also stopped a number of New England states (where the war was unpopular) from seceding.


Following the War of 1812, there was a general feeling of unity in the country. The Federalist party lost power, and the Republicans won the Presidency in 1816 and 1820 with James Monroe. His time as president is known as the ‘Era of Good Feelings’.

The country grew during this time. High tariffs were made on British goods, internal improvements were made within the country and a national bank was set up to handle the country’s money and issued the national currency. Industry expanded, and in 1819 so did the country. In the Adams-Onis treaty, America gained Florida for five million dollars. Land from Canada was gained, the border with Canada was set, and a temporary solution to the Oregon country was made. In 1823, James Monroe, on the advice of his Secretary of State John Quincy Adams, declared that the Americas were closed to further colonization, which became known as the Monroe Doctrine.

In 1824, John Quincy Adams was elected as President, following one of the messiest elections ever. Andrew Jackson won the most votes, but lost the presidency. When there was no majority in the electoral college, it went to the House of Representatives. Henry Clay, the most powerful man in the house, convinced many people to vote for John Q Adams, and he was elected. Clay was appointed Secretary of State, and Jackson declared that there had been a ‘corrupt bargain’. Adams was unpopular, and unable to get anything done during his time.

With this election, a regional rift was widened. The south, north and west were all different places, with the the south and north especially different. Eventually, it came that the north and south were trying to gain an advantage of power over each other. The Missouri Compromise established a tradition of entering a free and slave state at the same time, in order to preserve the balance of power, and so no one had an advantage.

The Jacksonian Democracy

In 1828, Andrew Jackson was elected President. He was originally a common man and a war hero, so he won in a landslide. He instituted a spoils system, where people who supported him were appointed to government jobs. He also faced the Nullification Crisis, where proponents of states rights believed a state had the ability to declare a law null and void. War nearly began at South Carolina, but Henry Clay, the ‘Great Compromiser’ pushed a successful compromise through Congress.

Jackson left office with his Vice President Martin Van Buren as his successor. Van Buren had a problem, as Jackson had decentralized the currency of the US into dozens of small banks. Van Buren was blamed for the ensuing economic problems.

After this, the Whig Party was born. Van Buren was defeated for reelection by William Henry Harrison, a war hero, who died about a month into office due to a pneumonia he caught during his inauguration. John Tyler took office.

Manifest Destiny

Our manifest destiny is to overspread the continent allotted by Providence for the free development of our yearly multiplying millions.

-John Louis Sullivan, 1845

As Americans became a bit more tightly pact, they looked to the Pacific. America shared rights of the Oregon country with great Britain, but there were many more Americans than British in the area by the 1830s. America gained most of the territory, up to the 49th parallel in 1846.

As in Oregon, there were many Americans in the Mexican region of Texas. They were becoming increasingly unhappy with Mexican rule, and began to move for independence. They won their war of independence - notable for the famous battle of the Alamo, where a small group of people held of a huge army. Texas became the Lone Star Republic, before it was annexed into the United States in 1845. Mexico broke off diplomatic relations with the US in response. The Mexican-American War would begin with the belief that the Rio Grande River was the southern border of Texas.

In California, there were about 700 Americans by 1845. After James Polk was elected, he told the Americans there to rebel against the Mexican rule. They managed to gain their independence, and raised a flag with a bear on it, and so this was called the ‘Bear Flag Revolt’. As this was during the war with Mexico, America declared California was part of it in 1846. Mexican troops were driven out of California.

In the Mexican-American war, people hoped to gain Mexican lands in between Texas and the Pacific. General Zachary Taylor won the war for America, and the nation gained the land that would eventually become California, Utah, Nevada, Arizona and parts of Wyoming, Colorado and New Mexico. With the Gadsen Purchase of 1853, what we now know as the Continental United States was complete.

Meanwhile, tension was growing between pro-slavery and anti-slavery people. More and more people became anti-slavery as time went on, and the southerners who needed slavery became more and more threatened. In 1850, Zachary Taylor, the commander of the US forces in the Mexican-American War, was President. Henry Clay proposed a compromise that would satisfy both sides on several key issues and put off secession. He proposed that slavery be abolished in Washington, DC and that California be admitted into the Union as a slave state, and for the south that the land from Mexico be divided into two territories which would decide for themselves if they wanted to be free or slave states, and that the Fugitive Slave Law be passed, requiring people to help return escaped slaves to their owner.

Intense debate followed, but it managed to pass. Clay singlehandedly delayed the Civil War for ten years. In 1852, Franklin Piece was elected President. In 1854, Stephen A Douglas worked to pass (successfully) the Kansas-Nebraska Act, which repealed the Missouri Compromise and allowed for each state to decide for itself whether it would allow slavery or not. This sparked the beginning of the Republican Party, a group dedicated to stopping the expansion of slavery.

The Whig party didn’t have a set policy on slavery, and it didn’t have the ability to make compromises, with the death of Henry Clay in 1852, so it was destined to die off. The Republicans fielded John C Fremont as their choice for President, and he did pretty well for a new party candidate, but James Buchanan won. The Supreme Court decided in 1857 that it was unconstitutional for slavery to be banned. This mobilized the Republicans more than ever.

The Civil War

Let us have faith that right makes might, and in that faith, let us, to the end, dare to do our duty as we understand it.

-Abraham Lincoln

In 1860, the Republican nominated Abraham Lincoln for President. The Democrats were unable to present a united front against Lincoln, and the northern Democrats nominated Stephen Douglas, while the southern Democrats nominated John C Breckinridge. Lincoln won the electoral vote, despite winning only 40% of the popular vote.

The south was afraid that if Lincoln was allowed to stay their president, he would do away with slavery, and seceded from the Union. The Civil War was fought, with more Americans dying in it than in any other war in the country’s history. In the end, Lincoln and the north managed to win, and the country was united again - with the bonus of having slavery abolished.

Lincoln was assassinated on 15 April, 1865 by John Wilkes Booth. He was succeeded with Andrew Johnson, who was largely unable to continue the Reconstruction policies of Lincoln, and was the first president to be impeached. Eventually, each state was allowed to return to the Union, and America became prosperous again.

More Growth

You have undertaken to cheat me. I won't sue you, for the law is too slow. I'll ruin you.

-Cornelius Vanderbilt

After the Civil War, a huge surge of industrial growth came. Huge companies were formed, and incredibly rich men such as John D Rockefeller and Andrew Carnegie held monopolies on entire industries. Many men made their wealth in railroads, which revolutionized industry in the latter part of the 1800s. Important inventions were made during the era, such as the telegraph, the telephone and the lightbulb. Railroads were laid quicker than one could imagine, and automobiles and even aeroplanes were made.

While huge profits made philanthrophists out of the Rockefellers and Carnegies, the middle and lower class were suffering. Unions were formed to make labour conditions better. Cities grew with industry becoming more important, and the government became more corrupt and reform was pushed.

In the island of Cuba, Spain was the ruler, treating the Cubans badly. William McKinley sent the navy to Cuba to protect American property and citizens. On 15 February, 1898, the USS Maine exploded in Havana harbour, killing 266 Americans. The American public believed Spain was behind the explosion, and America declared war on Spain to assure Cuban independence. The US Navy used its great power to block off the island from Spain, and sent 17,000 soldiers to control the island - including the famous ‘Rough Riders’ led by Theodore Roosevelt.

A peace treaty was signed on 10 December, 1898 in Paris. Spain gave up Cuba, Puerto Rico and Guam and sold the Philippine Islands to the US.

The World Wars

World War I began in Europe well before America joined. President Woodrow Wilson kept the country neutral, but an attack on the Luisitania on 7 May, 1915 by German ships made the Americans very angry. Germany said it would stop sinking passenger boats without warning. However, Wilson was forced to war when Germany revoked its promise on not sinking passenger ships, and they found the Zimmerman Telegram, which was a message asking for Mexico’s support with a war against America. The United States was forced to join the Allies.

Within a quarter of a year, more than one million people in America joined the army. Huge amounts of supplies would be used in the war and many people would volunteer. Their patriotism helped Americans comply with rationing, drafts and buy bonds. Women filled jobs left by men as men rushed into combat. Of coure, the Allies prevailed over the Central powers eventually and America helped rebuild the nations hurt by war.

After World War I, feminism swept over the country and the suffrage movement gained momentum. People became more distrustful of foreigners, and immigration was slowed. People were also scared of communism and its influence on American society. Calvin Coolidge took office as President in 1923, and encouraged business by raising tariffs, lowering taxes and not enforcing monopoly and antitrust laws. This resulted in a period of great prosperity in the 1920s and a boom of industry.

On 29 October, 1929, 16 million shares of stock were sold, without anyone to buy. The market crashed. More than a thousand banks failed, thousands of businesses failed and industry and agriculture was producing half as much as before. There were 12 million unemployed Americans. The President at the time, Herbert Hoover, refused to intervene with the economy, as he thought that it wasn’t the government’s place. Villages of shanties set up for people without homes would be called ‘Hoovervilles’. In the election of 1932, Franklin D Roosevelt was elected President in a landslide, and he began instituting a ‘New Deal’.

He began huge projects, and made several regulations, to try to recover from the Depression. He was attempting to increase home ownership and help bring banking back to prosperity. One important item was the Social Security Act. Meanwhile, World War II was raging in Europe, and America wanted to stay out of the conflict. Neutrality dissolved, however, as America sent several ships to Britain in return for some bases near America. It also lifted an arms embargo.

Roosevelt said that the US had to be an arsenal of democracy, and fight German Nazis... if indirectly at first. He sent even more weapons to Britain as a part of the Lend-Lease Act. On 7 December, 1941 Pearl Harbor, Hawaii was attacked by naval and air forces. This propelled America to war, and the country declared war on the Axis Powers. America notoriously sent 100,000 Japanese people to relocation camps away from the Pacific Coast.

Yesterday, December 7, 1941 - a date which will live in infamy - the United States of America was suddenly and deliberately attacked by naval and air forces of the Empire of Japan.

-Franklin Delano Roosevelt, asking Congress to declare war on Japan

The country rose to meet their enemies. They had to fight on two fronts - against the Japanese and in Europe. The most important attack for the United States was D-Day, where US troops, along with the British and Canadians, began the liberation of Europe. After many long years of battle, Germany surrendered on 8 May, 1945. Japan did not submit though, and it was known that the a large scale invasion of Japan would be costly in lives, so two atomic bombs were dropped on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki - something controversial still today. Japan surrendered on 14 August.

All the production and employment in World War II pulled America, and the world generally recovered. Peace was acheived quickly, and the armies came back to America rapidly. Franklin Roosevelt had died during the course of the war, and Harry Truman took the office. He made the Truman Doctrine, which said that America should assist people trying to be free.

The Cold War

As the second World War ended, another war begun. The Cold War between the US and Russia would occupy the minds of Americans for many decades. As the Soviet Union and the US both occupied Berlin, they confronted each other there often. NATO (the North Atlantic Treaty Organization) was established in 1949.

Just like in Berlin, the country of Korea was divided into sectors following World War II. Neither side would agree to reunite these halves of Korea, and they stayed divided. North Koreans sent some of their soldiers into South Korea and America responded, because they felt that another Communist Country in the region (China had become communist) would be bad. A difficult war ensued, and it demonstrated how the country would fight against the growth of communism.

Back in America, many were afraid of communists in the government. Joseph McCarthy headed a committee on Un-American Activities and charged that there were communists in high positions. Julius and Ethel Rosenberg were executed for stealing atomic bomb secrets in 1953. Eisenhower, a respected and heroic figure, was elected President in 1952, reigning over a period of conservatism and anti-communist feelings. The time was also extremely prosperous. It was also under Eisenhower than the Soviet Union and America began an arms race.

Ask not what your country can do for you, ask what you can do for your country.

-John F Kennedy’s Inaugural Address

John F Kennedy was elected President in 1960, and helped bring a time of hope and prosperity. He was young and charismatic, and he inspired Americans. The Cuban Missile crisis was the closest that the country really ever got to nuclear war with the Soviet Union. Kennedy proved to be a strong leader, and led Americans into space, and dreamed of America landing on the moon by the end of the decade. He was shot on 22 November, 1963 in Dallas, Texas. Lyndon Johnson was his successor, and pushed a ‘Great Society’ domestic plan, but escalated the infamous Vietnam War.

Civil Rights were important in the 1960s, with great speakers like Martin Luther King, Jr stirring peaceful protest. Johnson, an expert political craftsman was able to push the Civil Rights act of 1964 through Congress and make it law. Johnson was also chief executive during the height of the Vietnam War. Enormous amounts of troops were used to fight communism in the Asian country, and it was largely unpopular, especially with younger people.

Richard M Nixon was elected to the high office in 1968, and attempted to lower the troop levels, but his move into Cambodia and Laos was unpopular. During his time in office, Americans made it to the moon in 1969. He resigned from office in disgrace following the huge political scandal of Watergate. His Vice President Spiro Agnew having resigned, Gerald Ford took the office. He wasn’t reelected, and Jimmy Carter took office in 1976. His presidency didn’t have much notable except for the Iran hostage crisis. In 1980, former California Governor and actor Ronald Reagan was elected to the Presidency. His Reagan-omics, ending of the Cold War, Iran-Contra affair and unique politics defined an era.

The Modern Era

Reagan’s Vice President George HW Bush was elected President after Reagan’s second term ended and a recession hit America. Bush led the US and Soviet Nation countries in dismantling nuclear weapons. He was popular for his successes in the Gulf War, but was unable to make the economy pick up, so he lost to Bill Clinton in the election of 1992. Clinton had several important accomplishments - the economy picked up, he mediated in between the Palestineans and Israelis, and America entered NAFTA. Clinton was reelected in 1996, and was remembered for his Whitewater 'Scandal' and the Monica Lewinsky Affair.

In 2000, George W Bush was elected in one of the most contested election battles in history. On September 11, 2001, the famous World Trade Center Twin Towers were destroyed at the impact of two aeroplanes, and another in Washington DC attacked the Pentagon, killing around 3,000 people, prompting a 'war on terror'. We’ll have to wait to see how history records Bush and later events...

The Future

The future ain't what it used to be.

-Yogi Berra

More on America

1Because they were supposed to be ready to fight within a minute’s notice.2A nasty one, where the House of Representatives had to decide who would become president, following some very personal campaigning.

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