from the age of Bach and Handel to that of
Beethoven and Schubert. Some feel that Haydn is
"scandalously underrated" compared with other
composers (1). His late oratorios brought new life
to a musical form that had lost momentum since
Handel's death. (See "The Creation" and "The
Seasons" later in this entry). His late masses are
staples of the choral repertoire, and his 70
authenticated string quartets are important to people
who enjoy chamber music. Haydn is popularly referred
to as the father of the symphony, to which he devoted
nearly 40 years of his life. His early symphonies
show "direct influence of C.P.E. [Bach]" (2). C.P.E. was
the son of Johann Sebastian Bach. Haydn's middle
symphonies influenced contemporaries such as Mozart
and Vanhal. He went to London twice in the early 1790s,
where he presented the twelve so-called "Salomon Symphonies,
after the impresario who arranged the trips. These pieces
have stayed in the orchestral repertoire, and are currently
played regularly by symphony orchestras everywhere.
Of his 104 symphonies, these are the best-known.
Beethoven is known to have studied Haydn's symphonies
assiduously, using them as a jumping-off point
for his own symphonies.
Haydn spent most of his working life working for the
Eszterhazy family at the family's estate in Eisenstadt.
At times Haydn grew lonely, a condition that was
aggravated by his estrangement from his wife, Maria
Keller Haydn. He took a mistress, Luigia Polzelli, who
had been hired to sing in operatic productions.
Haydn's employers had a low opinion of Luigia, but Haydn
was able to write special arias for her when she couldn't
sing other composers' pieces. In this way Haydn made sure that
she stayed on the payroll.
Haydn was a close friend of Mozart, whom he regarded
as his greatest contemporary. Once it became clear that
Mozart was the era's supreme composer of operas, Haydn
stopped writing in that genre. By the same token, Mozart
cut back on his production of symphonies, apparently out
of deference to Haydn.
Haydn slipped into depression when news of Mozart's death
reached him in London in 1792. Nevertheless, Haydn
established himself as "Handel's successor" (3) in the field
of oratorio with his "The Creation" (1798), and "The
Seasons," (1801). Also included in his late work are six
masses, dozens of piano trios, a trumpet concerto, his finest
string quartets, his final opera ("L'Anima del Filosofo"),
and numerous songs, and piano sonatas. In 1797, Haydn
wrote what is arguably his most famous song: "Gott
Erhalte Franz Den Kaiser" as a national anthem for
Austria. He did this in response to France's
Marseillaise, and chose the Emperor's birthday as the
time for presenting it. The tune is still in use as a
national anthem, though Germany is using it now, after changing
Gott Erhalte Franze den Kaiser:
German national anthem:
Some time around 1803, Haydn became too feeble to work.
He retired to a house in Gumpendorf, a suburb of Vienna,
where he lived quietly with his servants and some pupils.
Although he did arrangements of Scottish folk songs,
he was unable to produce anything that demanded more
effort. In 1809, when Napoleon's troops were invading
Gumpendorf, Haydn got out of his sickbed to play the
Austrian National Anthem as an act of defiance against
Napoleon. Four days later, Haydn was dead, apparently
of shock from the heavy shelling. But even in death he
was to find no peace, for grave robbers stole the skull
from his crypt. It was not to be relocated and returned
to the rest of his remains until 1954. You can read more
about the incident here: A88010985
Posterity owes Haydn quite a bit. His tonal experimentation
in the overture to "The Creation" anticipates Richard Wagner. (4)
The high level of craftsmanship in Haydn's symphonies served
Beethoven well in his symphonies. Aficionados of chamber
music have much to celebrate, as Haydn continued the development
of the string quartet and piano trio from where Mozart left
off, giving Beethoven and his successors a solid foundation
on which to build.
#22, "The Philosopher"
#48, "Maria Theresia"
#82, "The Bear"
#83, "The Hen"
#101, "The Clock"
Masses and other liturgical pieces:
"Mass in Time of War"
"Lord Nelson Mass"
"Te Deum" in C
Op. 64, #5, "The Lark"
Op. 76, #2, "Quinten"
Op. 76, #3, "Emperor"
Other Chamber music:
Haydn's late piano sonatas and piano
trios are generally his best. Gilbert Kalish
and Glenn Gould have made recordings
of the former, as have many other pianists.
The Beaux Arts Trio have
done likewise with the latter.
3 concerti for violin, 1 for horn, 2 for cello,
3 for harpsichord, and 1 for trumpet.
For readers interested in finding out more about musical forms in which Haydn wrote, There are edited guide articles on Haydn's string quartets ( A42922640), and orchestral music
A Post article giving reasons to consider Haydn if you are about to go to a desert island can be found here: A1172314
The author not only recommends some of the pieces featured here, but explains in some detail why they are good choices.