Blood and Circulation - Glossary

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Active Transport - The movement of a substance across a cell membrane. This process requires energy.

Alveolus - (Plural - Alveoli) One of thousands of tiny airsacs inside the lungs designed to increase surface area.

Amino Acids - The building blocks of proteins.

Arteries - The larger blood vessels that lead away from the heart.

Arterioles - Smaller blood vessels that lead between the arteries and the capillaries.

Atrium - (Plural - Atria) One of the two upper chambers of the heart.

Capillaries - The smallest of blood vessels in which diffusion of food and gases takes place.

Diastole - Relaxation of the cardiac muscle.

Diffusion - The movement of a substance from an area of high concentration to a lower one.

Endothelium - An epithelium that lines a tube or space.

Epithelium - A tissue that lines or covers an organ.

Erythrocytes - The long name for red blood cells.

Fibrinogen - A plasma protein involved inclotting.

Granulocytes - Whit blood cells with a multi-lobed nucleus that play a role in allergies and fighting disease.

Haemoglobin - An Iron based glycoprotein, located in the red blood cells, that combines with oxygen to carry it around the body.

Heart - The organ that pumps blood atround the body by contracting.

Hydrostatic Pressure - The pressure that blood exerts against capillary walls causing the formation of tissue fluid.

Leucocytes - The long name for white blood cells.

Lymphocytes - White cell with very little cytoplasm used to secrete antibodies and fight infection.

Mitochondrion - The parts of a cells that produce energy.

Monocytes - White cell with kidney-bean shaped nucleus that ingests cell fragments.

Nucleus - The part of a cells that contains its DNA and that issues its instructions.

Plasma - The yellow liquid that blood cells are suspended in.

Platelets - Small cell fragments involved in blood clotting.

Pulmonary - Of the lungs.

Serum - Not quite sure.

Sink - Where a substance is being transported to.

Source - Where a substance is being transported from.

Systole - Contraction of the cardiac muscle.

Veins - Larger blood vessels leading back to the heart.

Ventricle - One of the lower chambers of the heart.

Venules - Smaller blood vessels that lead between the capillaries and the veins.

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