Ainu Grammar

2 Conversations





1.--In writing the Ainu language with the Roman letters, the following system has been adopted:--

LETTERS. Pronunciation and Remarks.

a As a in the word “father”.
e As e in the word “benefit”.
i As i in the word “ravine”.
o As o in the word “mote”.
u As u in the word “rule”.
ai As ai in the word “aisle” or i in “ice”.
ei As ey in the word “they”.
ao, au, eo, eu, ou are combinations in which each vowel must be distinctly pronounced.
b As b in English. No sentence can commence with this letter; but, preceded by another word, the letter p is often changed into b.
c This letter is never heard except in the combination ch. When used, it is always soft,
like the ch in church.
d D, like b, is never heard at the beginning of a sentence, but t often becomes d in composition.

* In introducing this Grammar of the Ainu Language, I desire to express my obligations to Mr. B. H. Chamberlain for many useful suggestions in regard to arrangement.--J. Batchelor.

f the letter f resembles the true labial in sound, it being softer than the English labio-dental f. It never occurs excepting followed by the vowel u. F, is used very sparingly indeed, and principally in words of Japanese origin.
g As g in good. No sentence commences with the letter g, but k becomes g in composition.

h As h in house. There is a tendency in some villages, particularly in those which are more immediately under Japanese influence, to change the letter h into f before u.
j The only word in which anything like the sound of the letter j occurs is machi, wife. In this word there is a tendency to change ch to j.
k Pronounced as in English.
m Pronounced as in English.
n Pronounced as in English.
p Pronounced as in English.
r Pronounced as in English.
s Pronounced as in English.
t Pronounced as in English.
w Pronounced as in English.
l Not heard in Ainu.
q Not heard in Ainu.
v Not heard in Ainu.
x Not heard in Ainu.
z something like the sound of the letter z is heard in the word pensai (penzai). The Ainu assert, however, that pensai is an old Japanese word for “junk”. It was the name given to the junks which used to come from Matsumai laden with rice for the Japanese military and fishing stations round the coast of Yezo.

2.--It will be seen, from the above, that no sonant letter can begin a sentence, and that, in composition only, surds are sometimes changed into sonants.
These changes are as follows:--
K becomes g.
P becomes b.
T becomes d.

3.--None of the consonants b, c, d, f, g, r, w, or y ever ends a word; but k, m, n, p, s, t, as well as the combinations ch and sh, often do. The letters j and z are not here mentioned, because they are not now used.

4.--Double consonants must always be pronounced, as in Italian and Japanese; thus:--
Ota; Sand Otta; In.
Rama; Spirit, soul Ramma; Always.
Shina; To lace up Shinna; A difference.


5.--Though the Ainu language, as a whole, is spoken with considerable uniformity throughout the Island of Yezo, many words are variously pronounced in different villages and districts. As an example of this, notice the word erum, a rat:--
In the Saru district erum is pronounced eremū.
In the Ishkari é’rem.
In the Usu erúm.
At Poropet-kotan (village) ērum.
At Shiraoi erum.
At Endrum endrúm.
The original word was probably endrum, which is preserved in the name of the village so called, and which means “the place of the rats”.

5-a.--There is a great tendency al over the country to confound the simple letter “s” with the combination “sh”. Indeed it is, in many cases, very difficult to know which is really meant; and often either way of speaking is considered equally correct, though in some cases the distinction is very sharp and important.

6.--The tonic accent is slight and unimportant, and has therefore not been used in this work. The half-singing intonation, which is specially noticeable in the pronunciation of the women, can hardly be termed a tonic accent, neither has it anything in common with the “tones” used by the Chinese. There is also no marked distinction between long and short vowels.

7.--The manner in which letter-changes take place is as follows:--

N becomes m before p, b, or m; thus;--
Tambe for tan pe or tanbe, this thing.
Tam-matkachi, for tan matkatchi, this girl.

Ra, ro, and ru become n before n and t; thus;--
Kara, to make; kan’ nangoro, will make.
Ku goro, my; ku kon’nishpa, my master.
An guru, a person; An gun’ ne, it is a person.
Oara, entirely; Oattuye, to cut through.

Ro, becomes t before chi and t; thus;--
Ku goro chisei becomes ku kot’ chisei, my house.
Ku goro toi becomes ku kot’ toi, my garden.

Note also the following:--
Heikal’tara for heikachi utara, lads.
Matkal’tara for matkachi utara, girls.
See Nos. 25, 26.

8.--When one word ending with a vowel is immediately followed by another commencing with a vowel, the final vowel of the first word is in some cases dropped; e.g.

Oya moshir’ un guru, for oya moshiri un guru, a foreigner.
Moshir’ ebitta, for moshiri ebitta, every person.
Utar’ obitta, for utara obitta, all people.

8-a.--By some persons the final “n” in pon and wen is changed into “I”; thus;--
Poi seta, for pon seta, a little dog.
Wei ainu, for wen ainu, a bad man.

Some go so far as to drop the “n” of pon altogether: e.g.
Po chikap, for pon chikap, a little bird.

This mode of talking should be carefully avoided, for it is only a careless way of speaking.

9.--It is not absolutely necessary to make any of the above letter-changes. All words may, if preferred, be pronounced in full.

10.--When it is desired to give special clearness to the pronunciation of a noun or adjective ending in a vowel, such final vowel may be reduplicated, preceded by the consonant h; thus:--


Ishi or ishihi, a bird’s tail.
Nimaki or nimakihi, a tooth.
Putu or putuhu, a lid; the mouth of a river.
Sara or saraha, an animal’s tail.
Shiki or shikihi, an eye.
To or toho, a day; a lake.


Kunne or kunnehe, dark; black.
Pirika or pirikaha, good.
Poro or poroho, greet.
Retara or retaraha, white.
Ri or rihi, sometimes riri, high.

11.--There are some cases in which it is absolutely necessary to reduplicate the final vowel. Thus.
Hochihi, a sum; must never be pronounced hochi.
Topaha, a crowd; must never be pronounced topa.
Weni-kurihi, a rain-cloud; must never be pronounced weni- kuri.


12.--The Ainu have adopted a number of Japanese words, most of which are affected by the peculiarities of pronunciation which distinguish the northern dialects of Japanese. Eespecially to be noted is the tendency to nasalization: e.g.


Kami, paper. Kambi.
Kogane, gold. Kongane.
Kosode, a short-sleeved garment. Kosonde.
Kugi, a nail. Kungi.
Tabako, tobacco. Tambako.

13.--The following is a list of some of the words borrowed from the Japanese language:--

Amam, garden produce (Probably from the Japanese word omamma, boiled rice).
Antuki, a kind of bean. (Jap. azuki.)
Aunki, fan. (Jap. ogi; the ancient Japanese pronunciation was afugi.)
Aya, the grains in wood.
Cha, tea.
Chikunai, a fine. (Jap. tsukunou, to indemnify.)
Emo, a potato. (Jap. imo.)
Endo, a well. (Jap. ido.)
Iro, colour.
Ita, a board.
Iwa, a rock.
Kama, a kettle. (Jap. a boiler.)
Kambi, paper. (Jap. kami.)
Kamui, a god. (Jap. kami.)
Kanazuchi, a hammer.
Kane or kani, metal, money.
Karakane, copper.
Kasa, a hat.
Kongane, gold. (Jap. kogane.)
Kosonde, a short-sleeved upper garment. (Jap. kosode.)
Kusuri, medicine.
Mame, beans.
Mane, to imitate.
Marapto, or maratto, a feast. (Apparently from the Japanese word marōdo, which was pronounced marebito, a guest.)
Menoko, a woman.
Noko, a saw. (Jap. nokogiri.)
Nomi, an awl.
Ondori, to dance. (Jap. odori.)
Ottena, a chief. (Jap. otona, an adult.)
Pakari, a measure. (Jap. hakari.)
Pensai, a large junk.
Pi-uchi, a flint and steel. (Jap. hi-uchi.)
Puri, a custom.
Rakko, a seal.
Rosoku, a candle.
Saimon, a priest. (Jap. ritual.)
Sake, rice-beer.
Sakne, last; as sakne pa, last year. (Jap. saku.)
Sarampa, goodbye. (probably Japanese saraba.)
Sendo, a boatman.
Shirokane, silver.
Sosh, a book. (Jap. sōshi.)
Tama, a ball.
Tambako, tobacco. (Jap. tabako.)
Teppo, a gun.
Tokkui, a companion. (Jap. togi.)
Tomari, an anchorage. (Jap. a stopping place.)
Tunchi, an interpreter. (Jap. tsūji.)
Tura, a row, a line. (Jap. tsura.)
Umma, a horse. (Jap. uma.)
Yakata, a house. (in Jap. this word denotes a palace.)
Yo, business. (Jap. yō.)

14:--The following are a few examples of Hybrid compounds. The words which are here italicised are Japanese:--

Amam-chikap, a sparrow.
Chikuni-potoke, a wooden idol.
Endo-kotan, Tôkyô (Yedo).
Mama-po, a step-child.
Niwatori-chikap, domestic fowls.
Pon-beko, a calf.
Pon-umma, a colt.
Shinto-habo, a mother-in-law.
Shinto-michi, a father-in-law.
Shuma-potoke, a stone idol.
Tera-kamui, a priest.
Tono-nishpa, a governor. (in some places the word Tono is used to indicate government offices.)
Tono-ru, and Tono-para-ru, the Mikado’s highway.
Yaku-etaye, to collect taxes.
Yo-an, to have an engagement, to have business.





15.—Nouns, in the Ainu language, undergo no change to indicate gender; e.g.

Chikap, a bird (cock or hen).
Chironnup, a dog fox or vixen.
Erum, a rat (male or female).
Kuru, a person (man or woman).
Po, a child (boy or girl).
Seta, a dog or bitch.
Umma, a horse or mare (Jap.).
Yuk, a deer (buck or doe).

16.—Though generally unexpressed, gender is, however, sometimes indicated by the use of special masculine or feminine words. The following are of frequent occurrence:--

Acha, uncle. Unarabe, aunt.
Ainu, man, Ainu. Shiwentep, woman.
Akihi, younger brother. Mataki, younger sister.
Apka, buck (deer). Momambe, doe (deer).
Chisei kon nishpa, householder. Chisei koro katkimat, landlady.
Ekashi, ancestor (grandfather.) Huchi, ancestress (grandmother).
Hambe, father. Totto, mother.
Heikachi, lad. Matkachi, girl.
Hoku, husband. Machi, wife.
Iyapo, father.
Karaku, cousin. Matkaraku, cousin.
Kiyanne-po, elder son. Kiyanne mat, elder daughter.
Kokowe, son-in-law. Koshimat, daughter-in-law.
Michi, father. Habo, mother.
Okkaibo, boy, young man (son). Matnepo, daughter, girl.
Ona, father (rarer than michi). Unu, mother (rarer than habo.)
Pinne, male. Matne, female.
Poneune po, younger son. Poneune mat, younger daughter.
Shiuk, he-bear. Kuchan, she-bear.
Shiuto-michi, father-in-law. Shiuto-habo, mother-in-law.
Sontak, little boy. Opere, little girl.
Yupo, elder brother. Sapo, elder sister.

17.—When it is absolutely necessary to express the sex of animals, this can be done by prefixing pinne, male, or matne, female, to the word: e.g.

Pinne chep, a male fish. Matne chep, a female fish.
Pinne chikoikip, a male animal. Matne chikoikip, a female animal.
Pinne kuitop, a gander. Matne kuitop, a goose.
Pinne kusuwep, a cock pigeon. Matne kusuwep, a hen pigeon.
Pinne rëep, a dog. Matne rëep, a bitch.
Pinne ruop, a male squirrel. Matne ruop, a female squirrel.

18.—In expressing the masculine gender of human beings, however, the word pinne must never be used. Okkai and okkaiyo should take its place; thus:--

Okkai poho, a little boy; a son.
Okkaibo, a young man.

19.—It should be carefully noted that the word okkaibo is not applied to lads between the ages of twelve and eighteen. During this period of life, lads are called heikachi or heikat’tara. From eighteen to thirty, young men are called okkaibo or okkaiyo; after the age of thirty a man is an ainu, that is, “a man”.


20.—The number of a noun is generally, like its gender, left unexpressed; e.g.

Aiai, a baby or babies. Kuma, a pole or poles.
Chikuni, a tree or trees. Nimaki, a tooth or teeth.
Chip, a boat or boats. Nochiu, a star or stars.
Humbe, a whale or whales. Nok, an egg or eggs.
Kamui, a god or gods. Paskuru, a crow or crows.

21.—When it is essential to draw attention to the fact that there is but one of a thing, the numeral shine, “one”, may be used; e.g.

Shine amam-chikap, one sparrow; a sparrow.
Shine chiramantep, one bear; a bear.
Shine itangi, one cup; a cup.
Shine itunnap, one ant; an ant.
Shine Shisam, one Japanese; a Japanese.

22.—It will be seen by the above examples that, when the numeral shine is so used, it corresponds, more or less, to the indefinite article a or an. (See No. 87.)

23.—Plurality may, when necessary, be expressed by adding the word utari, usually pronounced utare or utara, to nouns; e.g.

Chacha, an old man. Chacha utara, old men.
Hautur’un guru, a messenger. Hautur’un utara, messengers.
Nishpa, a master. Nishpa utara, masters.
Uitek guru, a servant. Uitek utara, servants.
Utarapa, a lord. Utarapa utara, lords.

24.—Notice, in such words as hautur’un guru and uitek guru, the dropping of the word guru, person, which the use of utari, utare, or utara renders superfluous.

25.—In two words heikachi, lad; and matkachi, girl; the final chi is contracted into t before the suffix utara, the u of which is dropped; thus:--

Heikachi, a lad. Heikat’tara, lads.
Matkachi, a girl. Matkat’tara, girls.

26.—The full way of writing matkachi is matnekachi. Matnekachi is probably short for matne-heikachi. Heikachi appears to have been the ancient word for child, whether boy or girl. In fact, even now, this word is sometimes applied to young people of either sex, particularly by the Ainu of Usu Kotan and the neighbouring district.

27.—Though there is no absolute rule against the use of utari, utare, or utara after the names of lower animals, it is considered best to avoid doing so. In their case, therefore, as in that of inanimate objects, plurality is left to be inferred from the context or from the verb.

28.—Diversity of subjects may be expressed by prefixing the word usa to nouns; thus:--

Usa-katpak, various or many sins.
Usa-seta, various or many dogs.
Usa-shiyeye, various or many diseases.
Usa-tashum, various or many sicknesses.
Usa-wenburi, a variety of bad habits.
Usa-wenkatcham, many evil intents or dispositions.


29.—In the Ainu language there are no cases properly so called. What is termed case in Latin and other Aryan languages is either left to be gathered from the context, or is denoted by use of a separate particle, as in English. The particles are, however, generally placed after, instead of before, the words they govern, and most of them are therefore postpositions, though some are used as prepositions. These particles are treated of in chapters IX and X.

A few examples are here given, as illustrations of how case may be inferred from the context:--

Anekempo shirutu, the snail crawls.
NOM. Tonin honoyanoya wa arapa, the worm goes wriggling along.
Kikiri kotoise, the insects swarm.

Furu poki ta, at the foot of the hill.
POSS. Ni sempirike, the shade of trees.
Nonno hura, the scent of flowers.

Otop erashke, to clip the hair.
OBJ. Wose-kamui kik, he struck the howling dog.
Yaoshkep raige, he killed a spider.


30.—What in English are termed “abstract nouns” can scarcely be said to exist in Ainu as simple words. Equivalents to them can, however, easily be formed by suffixing the particle i, or by adding the word ambe to certain adjectives and verbs; e.g.


Nupeki, bright. Nupeki’i or ambe, brightness.
Oupeka, upright. Oupeka’i or ambe, uprightness.
Pirika, good. Pirika’i or ambe, goodness.
Retara, white. Retara’i or ambe, whiteness.
Wen, bad. Wen’i or ambe, badness.

31.—The word ambe is itself a compound noun formed from an, “to be”, and pe, “a thing”. Great care must, therefore, be exercised in using it with adjectives to express abstract nouns; for retara ambe may, and often does, mean “a white thing”, and not “whiteness”, and oupeka ambe “an upright person”, and not “uprightness”. The following sentences will serve to illustrate this:--

Tokap chup kiai nupeki ambe anakne, shi no kotom ne ruwe ne; The brightness of the sun’s reflection is indeed beautiful.
Tan nonno anakne retar’ ambe ne; This flower is white.

32.—The following are examples of abstract nouns made by prefixing i to verbs:--

Eshokoro, to believe. Eshokor’i, belief.
Itak, to speak. Itak’i, speech.
Okere, to finish. Okere’i, the finish.
Uwepekennu, to inquire. Uwepekennu’i, inquiry.
Yainu, to think. Yainu’i, thought.
Ye, to say. Ye’i, a saying.

33.—Care must always be taken to pronounce the particle i distinctly; in fact, it might be better to place the letter h before the i;--thus, itak, itakhi; yainu, yainuhi. Compare No. 10.

34.—Once or twice we have heard yainuhu for yainuhi. The latter appears to be the correct way of speaking; at any rate, it is the form now in common use.


35.—Compound nouns are very extensively used in Ainu, and may be formed almost at will; e.g.

36.—Sometimes two substantives are compounded together; as:--

Amam, rice, millet, garden produce \
Chipak, a bird / Amam-chipak, a sparrow.

Kamui, the gods \
Hum, sound / Kamui-hum, thunder.

To, the breast \
Pe, water / To-pe, milk.

Toi, a garden \
Haru, herbs / Toi-haru, vegetables.

37.—Sometimes a verb and a noun are compounded ; e.g.

Haita, to miss a mark \
Kuru, a person / Haita-guru, a fool.

Ma, to roast \
Kam, flesh / Ma-kam, roast meat.

Shukup, to grow \
Kuru, a person / Shukup-guru, a young person.

Uhuye, to burn \
Nupuri, a mountain / Uhuye-nupuri, a volcano

38.—Note especially the compounds formed by means of pe or be, “a thing”, which is often contracted into the single letter p; e.g.


E, to eat. Ep, food.
Ese, to answer. Esep, an answer.
Kotchane, to mediate. Kotchanep, a mediator.
Munnuye, to sweep. Munnuyep, a broom.
Nuye, to write. Nuyep, a pen.
Ukoheraye, to resemble. Ukoherayep, things resembling one another.

39.—Passive verbs are almost always thus treated when helping
to make compound substantives, and hardly ever take the i
mentioned in numbers 30 and 32; e.g.


A-e, to be eaten. A-ep, a thing to be eaten; food.
A-eshokoro, to be believed. Aeshokorope, a thing believed.
A-yainu, to be thought. A-yainup, a thought.
A-ye, to be said. A-yep, a thing spoken.

40.—It sometimes makes no perceptible difference to the sense
whether the verb used to form the compound be active or passive,
as may be seen by comparing ep and a-ep, both of which mean

41.—Some nouns may also be made by adding the letter p to adjectives; e.g.


Pase, heavy. Pasep, a heavy thing.
Pirika, good. Pirikap, a good thing.
Poro, large. Porop, a large thing.

42.—Some verbs, by taking the word katu immediately before them, are thereby converted into nouns; e.g.


An, to be. An katu, existence.
Itak, to speak. Itak katu, language.
Shik-o, to open the eyes. Shik-o katu, birth.

43.—The word katu means ‘shape”, “form”, “mode”, “way”. Thus , an katu might be translated by “mode of being”, itak katu by “way of speaking”, and shik-o katu by “manner of birth”.

44.—When the verb is immediately followed by the compound word ambe, the two together should, in some cases, be translated by a single noun. Take, for instance, the following examples:--


An, to be. An ambe, entity.
Itak, to speak. Itak ambe, a saying.
Shik-o, to open the eyes. Shik-o ambe, a birth (lit. an opening of the eyes).


45.—The following are a few examples of the way in which proper nouns are formed:--

46.—Names of the Gods.

(These are given according to their order of dignity and importance).
Tokap chup Kamui, the sun god; the sun itself; (lit. Day luminary Deity).
Kunne chup Kamui, the moon god; the moon; (lit. Black luminary Deity).
Wakka-ush Kamui, goddess of water; (lit. Water Deity).
Chiwash okot mat, the goddess of the mouths of rivers; (lit. The female possessor of the places where fresh and salt waters mingle).
Kamui huchi, the goddess of fire; (lit. the Deity grandmother or old woman).
Shi-acha Kamui, a sea-god; not worshipped; (lit. Wild Uncle Deity).
Mo-acha Kamui, a sea-god; worshipped; (lit. Quiet Uncle Deity).
Shi-acha and mo-acha are together termed Rep un Kamui, the gods of the sea.

47.—Names of Men.

Ekash oka Ainu, the heir of the Ancients
Hawe riri Ainu, the eloquent man.
Nupeki san Ainu, the sender down of light.
Parapita Ainu, the mouth loosener.
Ramu an Ainu, the wise man.
Yuk no uk Ainu, the deer catcher.

48.—Names of Women.

Ikayup, the quiver.
Konru san, the sender down of ice.
Shine ne mat, the belle.
Shuke mat, the female cook.
Usapte, the prolific one.
Yai koreka, the selfish one.
Yai tura mat, the female misanthrope.

49.—Names of Places.

Erem not or nottu, the rat cape (Cape Erimo.)
E-san-i-not or nottu, the cape where volcano matter descends. (Cape Esan.)
Mopet kotan, the village by the quiet river. (Jap. Mombetsu.)
Otaru nai, the brook by the sand road.
Poropet kotan, the village by the great river. (Jap. Horobetsu.)
Riri shiri, the high land, or the high island.
Satporo kotan, the village of much dryness. (Jap. Sapporo.)
Shira(u) oi kotan, the village at the place of the issuing forth of gadflies.
Tomakonai kotan, the village by the stream which issues from behind the lake. (Jap. Tomakomai.)
Yam kush nai kotan, the village by the stream of the chestnut burs. (Jap. Yamakoshi.)

50.—Many of the names of places in Japan, whose origin is doubtful, may probably be traced to the Ainu language. Particularly such names as have the following words in them:--

Furu or huru, a hill; a gentle slope; an incline.
Kush, husks; burs.
Kush-i, the place of husks or burs. (Corrupted by the Japanese into koshi.)
Pet, a river. (Corrupted by the Japanese into beshi and betsu.)
Pit or pichi, a flint; a very hard stone; shingle.
Poru or boru, a cave in a rock. Por’i means, “the place of the caves.”
Shiri, earth; land; an island. Applied to water “swift”; as:--Shiri pet nupuri (Jap. Shiri beshi yama), the mountain by the swift river.
Shuma, a stone.
To, a lake.
Ya, land.

51.—The Four Seasons are:--
Paikara, spring. Sak, summer. Chuk, autumn. Mata, winter.

52.—The twelve monts of the year are as follows. Their etymology is obscure, and they are now mostly supplanted by their Japanese equivalents:--

Churup chup, January. Shimauta chup, July.
Toitanne chup, February. Yaruru chup, August.
Hoprap chup, March. Nuirak chup, September.
Mokiuta chup, April. Ureipak chup, October.
Shikinta chup, May. Shineu chup, November.
Momauta chup, June. Kuyekai chup, December.

53.—The Four Quarters of the Compass are:--

Hebera, north. Chup pok, moshiri chup Chup ka, moshiri chup ka, pok, moshiri gesh, west.
moshiri pa, east. Hebashi, south.



54.—The adjectives of the Ainu language may be conveniently classed under two heads, viz., simple and compound:--


55.—The following are a few examples of the simple adjectives:--

Atomte, neat. Poro, large; great.
Hekai, old. Ram, low.
Ichakkere, dirty. Ratchi, gentle.
Ipokash, ugly. Retara, white.
Kapara, thin. Ri, high.
Kotom, pretty. Sep, broad.
Para, broad. Shikari, round.
Parakara, hot. Shiretok, beautiful.
Pirika, good. Shisak, sweet.
Pon, little; small. Wen, bad.


56.—The compound adjectives are very numerous. Of some, the derivation is as yet doubtful; of others, it is more clear. Those of doubtful derivation end in ne, nu, o, tek, and ush; they are given first.

(a)—Those of doubtful derivation.

57.—Adjectives which can end in ne are as follows:--

Ashkanne, clean. Onne, old.
Etomochine, wanting; silly. Rupne, bulky; full-grown.
Hutne, narrow. Takne, short.
Irunne, thick. Tanne, long.
Kunne, black. Toranne, idle.

58.—Adjectives which end in nu:--

Aekat nu, delicious. Okirash nu, strong.
Itak nu, obedient. Otek nu, rich.
Kiroro ash nu, strong. Shin nu, great.
Nishash nu, healthy. Tumash nu, powerful.
Niwash nu, diligent. Wayash nu, wise.

59.--Adjectives which end in o:--

Used as an adjectival ending, o almost always indicates something disagreeable, and seems to be used principally after the names of insects; e.g.


Ki, a louse. Ki-o, lousy.
Kikiri, an insect. Kikiri-o, swarming with insects.
Oaikanchi, an earwig. Oaikanchi-o, swarming with earwigs.
Taiki, a flea. Taiki-o, full of fleas.
Uruki, louse eggs, nits. Uruki-o, full of nits. See No. 202.

60.—Adjectives which end in tek:--

Akonuptek, interesting. Sattek, thin.
Apuntek, gentle. Tuitek, torn.
Kimatek, startled. Tushtek, mad; crazy.
Kuttek, crowded; thick. Yaikopuntek, happy.
Monraigetek, industrious. Yuptek, laborious.
Nuchattek, merry.

61.—Adjectives which end in ush:--

Ai-ush, thorny (used of trees). Shippo-ush, salty.
Kem-ush, bloody. Shum-ush, oily.
Koponchi’ush, dusty. Toi-ush, earthy.
Kumi-ush, mouldy. Upa-ush, sooty.
Mun-ush, grassy. Wakka-ush, watery.
Nit-ush, thorny (used of brambles). Yachi-ush, miry.
Numa-ush, hairy. Yaipar’ush, greedy.
Ota-ush, sandy. Ye-ush, fatty; mattery.

62.—The following somewhat peculiar uses of the word ush should be carefully noted:--

Apa-ush kamui, the deity of doorways (lit. the doory god).
Abe-ush kamui, the deity of fires (lit. the fiery god).
Chikiri-ush set, a table with legs (lit. a leggy table).
Chup or’ush guru, the man in the moon (lit. the moon inny man).
Sar’ush chikoikip, an animal with a tail (lit. a taily animal).
Wakka-ush kamui, the deities of water (lit. the watery gods).

63.—From an analysis of the above examples, and a careful consideration of other uses of the word ush, we may safely conclude that, whatever other meanings it may have, it often carries a locative sense with it. It is akin to the particle un, which is also locative. Probably ush is the plural form of un. (For un see No. 248.)

(b.)—The adjectives whose derivations are more clear.

64.—Adjectives which take the verb an, to be, after them:--

Keme an, scarce; rare. Me an, cold.
Kera an, sweet. Paro an, eloquent.
Kiroro an, strong. Tumu an, plenteous; abundant.

It should be carefully noted by the student that the verb an not only means “to be”, but also “to hold” and “to have”; thus:--

Kera an be, a sweet thing (lit. a thing that is sweet, or a thing having sweetness).
Kiroro an guru, a strong person (lit. a person having strength.)

The context alone must always decide exactly how the sentence should be translated into English.

65.—Adjectives ending with the verb koro, “to possess”:--

Haro koro, fat (lit. possessing fat); used of animals.
Hon koro, pregnant (possessing stomach).
Ikkewe koro, important; weighty; strong (lit. possessing backbone or spine).
Keutum koro, of strong mind, will, or disposition (lit. possessing mind or soul).
Pawetok koro, eloquent.
Sakanram koro, quarrelsome (lit. possessing a scolding heart).

66.—Adjectives which take the word sak after them.

The word sak signifies “destitution”, and may be translated by the English word “without”:--

Ikkewe sak, meaningless, unreliable (lit. without backbone or spine).
Ramu sak, foolish (lit. without mind).
Shik sak or shik nak, blind (lit. without eyes).
Tum sak, weak (lit. without stamina).
Yainu sak or yainu-i sak, thoughtless (lit. without thinking; without thought).

67.—It might be inferred from the preceding examples that, by taking the affirmative ending koro away from any noun, and supplying the negative word sak in its place, or vice versa, adjectives could be made at will. Such however, is not the case. Thus, otek sak is “poor”; but “rich” is otek-nu.

68.—one or two nouns take the locative particle un after them; thus:--

kotom un be, a beautiful thing, a thing of beauty.
Paro un guru, an eloquent person (lit. a person of mouth).


69.—The comparative and superlative degrees of adjectives are by no means so extensively used as in English and other Aryan languages, the meaning often being left to be gathered from context.

70.—When it is absolutely necessary to be explicit, the comparative degree is formed by placing the word naa, “yet”, “more”; and the superlative by placing iyotta, “most”, before the positive degree: e.g.

Pirika, good. Naa pirika, better. Iyotta pirika, best.
Pon, small. Naa pon, smaller. Iyotta pon, smallest.
Ri, high. Naa ri, higher. Iyotta ri, highest.

And so on.

71.—The comparative with “than” may be expressed in six different ways:--(a)with the word akkari; (b) with akkari and eashka; (c)with akkari and eitasa; (d)with akkari and mashki no; (e)with akkari and naa; (f)with kasu no. Two illustrations of each method are here given as examples.

(a).—The comparative with akkari. Akkari originally means “to surpass”, and may be translated “than”; e.g., E akkari, ku nitan ruwe ne, I am faster than you (lit. than you, I go fast).

Nei tonoto akkari, tan tonoto shisak ne ruwe ne ;
This wine is sweeter than that (lit. than that wine, this wine is sweet).

(b).—The comparative with akkari and eashka. Eashka means “very”, “more”, e.g.,
Ya akkari rep anak ne easlika poro ruwe ne;
The sea is greater than the land (lit. than the land, the sea is more great).
Kunne chup akkari, tokap chup anak ne easlika nupeki an ambe ne ruwe ne, the sun is brighter than the moon (lit. than the moon, the sun is a thing more bright).

(c).—The comparative with akkari and eitasa. Eitasa means “excess”:--
Toan kotan akkari, tan kotan anak ne eitasa hange no an kotan ne ruwe ne, this village is nearer than that (lit. than that village, this village is a nearer village).
Tambe akkari, nei ambe eitasa pirika ruwe ne, this is better than that.

(d).—The comparative with akkari and mashki no. Mashki no means “surpassingly”; e.g.,
Umma akkari, isepo mashki no nitan ruwe ne, a hare is swifter than a horse (lit. than a horse, a hare is surpassingly swift of foot).
Anekempo akkari, itunnap mashki no pon ruwe ne, an ant is smaller than a snail.

(e).—The comparative with akkari and naa; e.g.,
En akkari, eani naa shiwende ruwe ne, you are a slower walker than I (lit. than me, you go more slowly).
Nishkuru akkari, nochiu anak ne naa ri ruwe ne, the stars are higher than the clouds.

(f).—The comparative with kasu no. Kasu no means “surpassing”, e.g.,
En kasu no, e ri ruwe ne, you are taller than I (lit. surpassing me, you are tall).
E kasu no ku ram ruwe ne, I am shorter than you (lit. surpassing you, I am short).


72.—The demonstrative adjectives, “this”, “that”, “these”, and “those”, are as follows:--
Ta an or tan, this. Tan okai, these.
Ne a, that. Nei okai, those (a short distance off).
Nei an, that (a short distance away). To an okai, those (a good distance off).
To an, that (a good distance away).

73.—The singular form of these adjectives may be prefixed to plural nouns; but the plural forms can never be placed before singular nouns. The reason is that okai is really a plural verb meaning “to dwell at” or “be in” a place.

74.—The demonstrative adjectives are also used for the third person singular and plural of the personal pronoun. See Nos. 112, 113, 114.


75.—When the particle e is prefixed to certainadjectives it has the power of changing them into verbs; e.g.,

Hapuru, soft. E hapuru, to be unable to endure.
Nishte, hard. E nishte, to be able to endure.
Pirika, good. E pirika, to gain.
Wen, bad. E wen, to lose.

76.—Some adjectives, by taking no after them, become adverbs; e.g.,

Ashiri, new. Ashin’no, newly.
Son, true. Sonno, truly. See No. 169.

77.—A few adjectives become adverbs by taking the word tara after them; e.g.,
Moire, slow. Moire-tara, slowly.
Ratchi, gentle. Ratchi-tara, gently.

78.—When the letter p is suffixed to some of the simple adjectives which end in a, e, i, or o (see Section 1), or to any of the adjectives compounded with ne or nu (see Section 2, Nos. 57 and 58), they become nouns, thus:--
Atomte, neat. Atomtep, a neat thing.
Ichakkere, dirty. Ichakkerep, a dirty thing.
Kapara, thin. Kaparap, a thin thing.
Parakara, acrid; pungent. Parakarap, a pungent thing.
Pirika, good. Pirikap, a good thing.
Poro, large. Porop, a large thing.
Shikari, round. Shikarip, a round thing.

A-ekat nu, delicious. A-ekat nup, a delicious thing.
Ashkan ne, clean. Ashkan nep, a clean thing.
Hut ne, narrow. Hut nep, a narrow thing.
Wayash nu, wise. Wayash nup, a wise thing.

79.—The letter p, which is here compounded with the adjectives, is a contraction of pe, “a thing”. This should be carefully borne in mind lest, in construing, mistakes should arise. The p converts the adjective, to which it is attached, into a concrete, not into an abstract noun. Thus, kaparap is not “thinness”, but “a thin thing”; and porop is not “largeness”, but “a large thing”; nor is wayash nup “wisdom”, but “a wise person” or “thing”.

80.—As the other adjectives, namely a few of the simple, and all of the remaining compound adjectives, are incapable of taking the contracted form p after them, they are followed by the word in full, that is, pe softened into be, thus:--
Hekai be, an old person.
Sakanram koro be, a quarrelsome person.
Kumi-ush be, a mouldy thing.
Paro un be, an eloquent person.
Tum sak be, a weak thing.



81.—The numerals assume four forms in the Ainu language, viz.; first, the Radical form; second, the Substantive form; third, the Ordinal form; fourth, the Adverbial form.


82.—The radical forms of the numerals are as follows:--
Shine 1 Shine ikashima hot ne 21
Tu 2 Tu ikashima hot ne 22
Re 3 Re ikashima hot ne 23
Ine 4 Ine ikashima hot ne 24
Ashikne 5 Ashikne ikashima hot ne 25
Iwa(n) 6 Iwan ikashima hot ne 26
Arawa(n) 7 Arawan ikashima hot ne 27
Tupe-san 8 Tupe-san ikashima hot ne 28
Shinepe-san 9 Shinepe-san ikashima hot ne 29
Wa(n) 10 Wan e, tu hot ne 30
Shine ikashima wa(n) 11 Shine ikasima, wan e, tu hot ne 31
Tu ikashima wa(n) 12 Tu ikashima, wan e, tu hot ne 32
Re ikashima wa(n) 13 Re ikashima, wan e, tu hot ne 33
Ine ikashima wa(n) 14 Ine ikashima, wan e, tu hot ne 34
Ashikne ikashima wa(n) 15 Ashikne ikashima, wan e, tu hot ne 35
Iwan ikashima wa(n) 16 Iwan ikashima, wan e, tu hot ne 36
Arawan ikashima wa(n) 17 Arawan ikashima, wan e, tu hot ne 37
Tupe-san ikashima wa(n) 18 Tupe-san ikashima, wan e, tu hot ne 38
Shinepe-san ikashima wa(n) 19 Shinepe-san ikashima, wan e, tu hot ne 39
Hot ne 20 Tu hot ne 40

83.—Twenty, more literally a “score”, is the highest unit ever present to the Ainu mind when counting. Thus, forty is “two score” (tu hot ne); sixt is “three score” (re hot ne); eighty is “four score” (ine hot ne); and a hundred is “five score” (ashikne hot ne).

84.—Numbers may be framed by means of scores to an indefinite extent; but in actual practice the higher numbers are rarely, if ever, met with. At the present day, the simpler Japanese method of numeration is rapidly supplanting the cumbrous native system.

85.—In order to arrive at a clear comprehension of the Ainu system of counting, the student must carefully note the following particulars:--

(a.)—The word ikashima commonly means, “excess”, “redundance”; but with the numerals it signifies, “addition”, “to add to”. It is always placed after the number which is conceived of as added.
(b.)—The particle e signifies “to subtract”, “to take from”, and follows the number which is supposed to be taken away. Care must therefore be taken not to confound this particle with the e which is used as a preposition, and which means, “to”, “towards”, (See Chapter IX. Section 2 No. 196). Thus tu ikashima, wa(n) is, “two added to ten”, i.e. 12; and shinepe-san ikashima, wan e, tu hot ne, is, “nine added to, ten taken from, two score”; and so on.

Shine ikashima, tu hot ne 41 Shinepe-san ikashima, re hot ne 69
Tu ikashima, tu hot ne 42 Wan e, ine hot ne 70
Re ikashima, tu hot ne 43 Shine ikashima, wan e, ine hot ne 71
Ine ikashima, tu hot ne 44 Tu ikashima, wan e, ine hot ne 72
Ashikne ikashima, tu hot ne 45 Re ikashima, wan e, ine hot ne 73
Iwan ikashima, tu hot ne 46 Ine ikashima, wan e, ine hot ne 74
Arawan ikashima, tu hot ne 47 Ashikne ikashima, wan e, ine hot ne 75
Tupe-san ikashima, tu hot ne 48 Iwan ikashima, wan e, ine hot ne 76
Shinepe-san ikashima, tu hot ne 49 Arawan ikashima, wan e, ine hot ne 77
Wan e, re hot ne 50 Tupe-san ikashima, wan e, ine hot ne 78
Shine ikashima, wan e, re hot ne 51 Shinepe-san ikashima, wan e, ine hot ne 79
Tu ikashima, wan e, re hot ne 52 Ine hot ne 80
Re ikashima, wan e, re hot ne 53 Shine ikashima, ine hot ne 81
Ine ikashima, wan e, re hot ne 54 Tu ikashima, ine hot ne 82
Ashikne ikashima, wan e, re hot ne 55 Re ikashima, ine hot ne 83
Iwan ikashima, wan e, re hot ne 56 Ine ikashima, ine hot ne 84
Arawan ikashima, wan e, re hot ne 57 Ashikne ikashima, ine hot ne 85
Tupe-san ikashima, wan e, re hot ne 58 Iwan ikashima, ine hot ne 86
Shinepe-san ikashima, wan e, re hot ne 59 Arawan ikashima, ine hot ne 87
Re hot ne 60 Tupe-san ikashima, ine hot ne 88
Shine ikashima, re hot ne 61 Shinepe-san ikashima, ine hot ne 89
Tu ikashima, re hot ne 62 Wan e, ashikse hot ne 90
Re ikashima, re hot ne 63 Shine ikashima, wan e, ashikne hot ne 91
Ine ikashima, re hot ne 64 Tu ikashima, wan e, ashikne hot ne 92
Ashikne ikashima, re hot ne 65 Re ikashima, wan e, ashikne hot ne 93
Iwan ikashima, re hot ne 66 Ine ikashima, wan e, ashikne hot ne 94
Arawan ikashima, re hot ne 67 Tupe-san hot ne 160
Tupe-san ikashima, re hot ne 68 Shine ikashima, tupe-san hot ne 161
Ashikne ikashima, wan e, ashikne hot ne 95 Wan e, shinepe-san hot ne 170
Iwan ikashima, wan e, ashikne hot ne 96 Shine ikashima, wan e, shinepe-san hot ne 171
Arawan ikashima, wan e, ashikne hot ne 97 Shine-san hot ne 180
Tupe-san ikashima, wan e, ashikne hot ne 98 Shine ikashima, shinepe-san hot ne 181
Shinepe-san ikashima, wan e, ashikne hot ne 99 Wan e, shine wan hot ne 190
Ashikne hot ne 100 Shine ikashima, wan e, shine wan hot ne191
Shine ikashima, ashikne hot ne 101 Shine wan hot ne 200 Wan e, iwan hot ne 110 Ashikne hot ikashima, shine wan hot ne 300
Shine ikashima, wan e, iwan hot ne 111 Tu shine wan hot ne 400
Iwan hot ne 120 Ashikne hot ikashima, tu shine wan hot ne 500
Shine ikashima, iwan hot ne 121 Re shine wan hot ne 600
Wan e, arawan hot ne 130 Ashikne hot ikashima, re shina wan hot ne 700
Shine ikashima, wan e, arawan hot ne 131 Ine shine wan hot ne 800
Arawan hot ne 140 Ashikne hot ikashima, ine shine wan hot ne 900
Shine ikashima, arawan hot ne 141 Ashikne shine wan hot ne 1000
Wan e, tupe-san hot ne 150
Shine ikashima, wan e, tupe-san hot ne 151

86.—The radical form is always placed before the noun to which it refers; e.g.

Shine itangi, one cup. Shine isepo, one hare.
Tu ai, two arrows. Tu ichaniu, two salmon trout.
Re kuitop, three wild geese. Re nok, three eggs.
Ine retat’chiri, four swans. Ine yaoshkep, four spiders.

87.—the radical form shine is also often used as the indefinite article a or an. See Nos. 21 and 22.


88.—The substantive for of the numeral is two-fold. For persons it is formed by adding niu, in some of the numbers abbreviated to the single consonant n. For things and animals it is formed by adding pe, be, or the letter p alone. Niu means “person”, and pe means “thing”, e.g.

89.—Niu, “a person”.
Shinen, one person. Wa niu, ten persons.
Tun, two persons. Shinen ikashima, wa niu, eleven persons.
Ren, three persons. Tun ikashima, wa niu, twelve persons.
Inen, four persons. Hot ne niu, twenty persons.
Ashikne niu, five persons. Wa niu e, tu hot ne niu, thirty persons.
Iwa niu, six persons. Shinen ikashima, wa niu e, tu hot ne niu, thirty-one persons.
Arawa niu, seven persons. Ashikne hot ne niu, one hundred persons.
Tupe-san niu, eight persons.
Shinepe-san niu, nine persons.

90.—Pe, be, p, “thing”.
Shinep, one thing. Wanbe, ten things.
Tup, two things. Shinep ikashima, wanbe, eleven things.
Rep, three things. Tup ikashima, wanbe, twelve things.
Inep, four things. Hot nep, twenty things.
Ashiknep, five things. Wanbe e, tu hot nep, twenty-one things.
Iwanbe, six things. Shinep ikashima, wanbe e, tu hot nep, thirty-one things.
Arawanbe, seven things. Ashikne hot nep, one hundred things.
Tupe-sanbe, eight things.
Shinepe-sanbe, nine things.
[N.B.—Note carefully the repetition of the noun after each numeral.]

91.—With the numbers two and three, quadrupeds and sometimes even inanimate objects are counted with the word pish, e.g.

Seta shinep, one dog. Seta rep pish, three dogs.
Seta tup pish, two dogs. Seta inep, four dogs.

92.—Niu, pe and pish may be considered to correspond in some degree to the so-called “classifiers” or “auxiliary numerals” of Chinese, Japanese, and many other Eastern languages; but no further trace of such “classifiers” exists.

93.—The radical form can never be used in answer to a question. In such a case one of the substantive forms must be employed.

94.—Some nouns are excluded by their nature from both the above categories. The following are a few such words. Kamui, “god or gods”; To, “a day”; Tokap, “day”; Kunne, “night”, “black”.

95.—Kamui is counted as follows:--

Shine kamui, one god. Shinepe-san kamui, nine gods.
Tu kamui, two gods. Wan kamui, ten gods.
Re kamui, three gods. Shine kamui ikashima, wan kamui, eleven gods.
Ine kamui, four gods. Tu kamui ikashima, wan kamui, twelve gods.
Ashikne kamui, five gods. Hot ne kamui, twenty gods.
Iwan kamui, six gods.
Arawan kamui, seven gods.
Tupe-sam kamui, eight gods.
And so on.

96.—To is counted as follows:--

Shine to, one day. Shine to ikashima, wan to, eleven days.
Tut ko, two days. Tut ko ikashima, wan to, twelve days.
Rere ko, three days. Rere ko ikashima, wan to, thirteen days.
Ine rere ko, four days. Hot ne to, twenty days.
Ashikne rere ko, five days. Wan to e, tu hot me to, thirty days.
Iwan rere ko, six days. Tu hot ne rere ko, forty days.
Arawan rere ko, seven days. Wan to e, re hot ne rere ko, fifty days.
Tupe-san rere ko, eight days. Re hot ne rere ko, sixty days.
Shinepe-san rere ko, nine days. Ashikne hot ne to, one hundred days.
Wan to, ten days.

97.—Tokap is counted as follows:--

Tokap shine to, one day. Wan to, ten days.
Tokap tut ko, two days. Tokap shine to ikashima, wan to, eleven days.
Tokap rere ko, three days. Tokap tut ko ikashima, wan to, twelve days.
Tokap rere ko ine rere ko, four days. Tokap rere ko ikashima, wan to, thirteen days.
Tokap rere ko ashikne rere ko, five days. Tokap rere ko ine rere ko ikashima, wan to, fourteen days.
Tokap rere ko iwan rere ko, six days. Hot ne to, twenty days.
Tokap rere ko arawan rere ko, seven days.
Tokap rere ko tupe-san rere ko, eight days.
Tokap rere ko shinepe-san rere ko, nine days.
And so on.

98.—Kunne is counted as follows:--

Shine anchikara, one night.
Tu anchikara, two nights.
Re anchikara, (also kunne rere ko), three nights.
Kunne rere ko ine rere ko, five nights.
Kunne rere ko ashikne rere ko, five nights.
Kunne rere ko iwan rere ko, six nights.
Kunne rere ko arawan rere ko, seven nights.
Kunne rere ko tupe-san rere ko, eight nights.
Kunne rere ko shinepe-san rere ko, nine nights.
Wan anchikara, ten nights.

And so on; i.e., adding kunne and kunne rere ko wherever tokap
and tokap rere ko would be added to express “day”.

99.—When it is necessary to use such sentences as “forty days and
forty nights” (as in Matt. IX. 2.), or “three days and three nights”
(as in Matt. XII. 40.), the following method should be followed:--

Tokap rere ko tu hot ne rere ko, kunne rere ko tu hot ne rere ko,
i.e., forty days (and) forty nights.

Tokap rere ko, kunne rere ko, i.e., three days (and) three nights.


100.—The ordinal numerals are expressed in two ways. The first
is as follows:--

Shine ikinne, first. Iwan ikinne, sixth.
Tu ikinne, second. Arawan ikinne, seventh.
Re ikinne, third. Tupe-san ikinne, eighth.
Ine ikinne, fourth. Shinepe-san ikinne, ninth.
Ashikne ikinne, fifth. Wan ikinne, tenth.

And so on; adding ikinne to the radical form wherever pe, be, or p
would be placed for the substantive form.

101.—The second way is as follows, but goes no higher than ten.
Above ten the first method alone is in use:--

Shine tutanu, first. Iye e iwan ikinne, sixth.
Tu otutanu, second. Iye e arawan ikinne, seventh.
Iye e re ikinne, third. Iye e tupe-san ikinne, eighth.
Iye e ine ikinne, fourth. Iye e shinepe-san ikinne, ninth.
Iye e ashikne ikinne, fifth. Iye wan ikinne, tenth.

102.—The ordinals are rarely met with. When they are used, the
noun is preceded by no an, e.g.,

Shine ikinne no an ainu, the first man.
Shine tutanu no an chisei, the first house.
And so on.


103.—The adverbial form of the numeral is formed by adding
shui-ne to the radical, e.g.,

Ara shui-ne, once. Iwan shui-ne, six times.
Tu shui-ne, twice. Arawan shui-ne, seven times.
Re shui-ne, thrice. Tupe-san shui-ne, eight times.
Ine shui-ne, four times. Shinepe-san shui-ne, nine times.
Ashikne shui-ne, five times. Wa shui-ne, ten times.
And so on.

104.—The word shui-ne is compounded from shui, “again” and ne,
part of the verb “to be”; shui-ne would therefore mean “to be


The following miscellaneous expressions may be conveniently
here noted.

105.—Pairs of articles are expressed by the word uren, “both”,
placed before the noun, e.g.:--

Chikiri, the leg; foot. Uren chikiri, both legs or feet.
Huyehe, a cheek. Uren huyehe, both cheeks.
Keire, a shoe. Uren keire, both shoes.
Kema, a foot; a leg. Uren kema, both feet or legs.
Kesup, a heel. Uren kesup, both heels.
Kisara, an ear. Uren kisara, both ears.
Kokkasapa, a knee. Uren kokkasapa, both knees.
Noyapi, a jaw. Uren noyapi, both jaws.

106.—One of a pair is expressed by prefixing the word oara to the
noun, e.g.:--

Paraori, insteps. Oara paraori, one instep.
Patoi, lips. Oara patoi, one lip.
Raru, eyebrows. Oara raru, one eyebrow.
Shiki, eyes. Oara shiki, one eye.
Tapsutu, shoulders. Oara tapsutu, one shoulder.
Teke, hands. Oara teke, one hand.
Tokumpone, ankles. Oara tokumpone, one ankle.

107.—It may be found useful to note also the following phrases:--
(a.) Shinen shinen, one by one.
Tun tun, two and two.
Ren ren, three and three. And so on.
{Used only of persons.}
(b.) Shinen range, singly.
Tun range, by twos.
Ren range, by threes. And so on.
{Used only of persons.}
(c.) Shinep shinep, one by one.
Tup tup, two and two.
Shinep range, singly.
Tup range, by twos. And so on.
{Used of animals and things.}
(d.) Chup emko e, tu chup, a month and a half.
Chup emko e, re chup, two months and a half. And so on.
Tan to hempak rere ko an a? What is the day of the month?
(e.) The different words for “half”, are as follows:--
Arike, the half of a long thing (split longwise).
Emko, the half of a long thing (cut through).
Nimara, half a measure.
Noshike, sometimes used for half, (really centre).
Oukoro, half-way through.




108.—The forms of the personal pronouns differ according to the context and to the degree of respect meant to be expressed.

109.—The pronouns of the first person singular are:--
ku, kuani, kani, and chokai.
(a.) Ku was probably the original word, and it is still used with verbs, whereas kuani stands isolated, chiefly at the beginning of sentences, like the French “moi”, thus:
Kuani ku nukara, corresponds exactly to “Moi je vois”.
(b.) Kuani seems to be derived from ku, “I” , an, the
substantive verb “to be”, and the particle i, which, when
placed after adjectives and verbs, turns them into substantives. See Nos. 30, 31, 199.
(c.) Kani is simply a contraction of kuani.
(d.) Chokai is contracted from chi which means “we”, and okai, which signifies “to be at” or “in a place”. This word is therefore a plural, but it has now, in some cases at least, a singular signification.
(e.) Kuani and kani are polite forms; chokai is a more humble word.
(f.) In some parts of the country ku sometimes becomes ke, or even k, before vowels, but the form ku is in general use and is everywhere understood; thus:--
Ku eshokoro (local, ke eshokoro), I believe.
Ku oira (local, k’oira), I forget.

110.—The pronouns of the second person singular are:--
E, eani, yani, aokai, and anokai.
(a.) E appears to be the original word from which eani has been formed: thus:--
E-an-i, as shown in ku-an-i above.
(b.) Yani is a very contemptuous expression, and is a corruption of eani.
(c.) Aokai, which is a contraction of anokai, is, like anokai, a more polite form of speech than eani, but neither are so often used. Like chokai, aokai and anokai were originally plurals, and are still so used in certain contexts.

111.—Sometimes the words ku shiroma and e shiroma are heard for the first and second person singular respectively, but not often. Shiroma is a verb meaning “to abide”, “to stay”. Thus, ku shiroma really means “I who am here”; and e shiroma “you who are there”.

112.—The Third Person.

There is no proper third personal pronoun. Its place is supplied by the demonstrative adjectives, e.g. (Compare Chapter III. Section 4, Nos. 72-73).
Tan guru, this person. (man or woman).
Tam be, this thing.
Nei ambe or guru, that thing or person (a little way off).
To ambe or guru, that thing or person (a greater distance off).
Tap, this thing (whether far off or near).
Ne a ikiyap, that thing or fellow (a word of contempt).

112 (a.)—Sometimes, however, the particle a contracted from anun, “another person”, or “the other person”, is used as an honourable way of speaking of one’s own master or a superior; thus:--
A e hotuyekara, he is calling you.
Anun, pronounced in full, is sometimes used by a servant when addressing his master.
In such cases anun means “you”; thus:--
Hunna? Who?—Anun, the other person, i.e., you.

113.—The above forms are used only at the beginning of sentences, and are never immediately prefixed to verbs. Before verbs, “we” is expressed by chi, and “ye” by echi. The following are examples:--
Chi utara anakne Ainu chi ne, we are Ainu.
Echi utara anakne Ainu echi ne, ye are Ainu.
Chi nukara, we see.
Chi hoshippa an ro, let us return.
Echi eraman ruwe he an? Do ye understand?
Hunak un echi paye? Where are you going to?

114.—The plurals of the third personal pronouns are as follows:--
Tan utara or tan okai utara, these persons.
Nei utara or nei okai utara, they (persons a little way off).
To an utara or to okai utara, they (persons farther off).
Tan okai be, these things, these.
Nei okai be, those things, they (a short distance away).
To an okai be\those things, they (a greater distance off).
To okai be /
[N.B.]—Care should be taken not to use pe or b when persons are intended; for pe or be can only be applied to the lower orders of creation.

115.—The reflexive pronoun yaikota, “self”, is used as follows:--
Kuani yaikota; I myself.
Eani yaikota; you yourself.
Nei guru yaikota; he himself or she herself.

116.—Before verbs a kind of double reflexive is sometimes used; thus:--
yaikota yai-raige; he killed himself. (See Nos. 163-164.)


117.—The various forms of the first and second persons mentioned above in Sect. 1 may be termed nominatives. The following examples will illustrate this:--
Kuani tanebo ku ek ruwe ne, I have just come (i.e., come for the first time).
Eani e arapa ya? have you been?
Eani nepka e ye ya? did you say something?
Ku oman, I am going.
Ku kon rusui, I desire it.
E ek, come thou.
E irushka ya? are you angry?

118.—The following are examples of the longer form of pronouns, used without the corresponding short ones, e.g.:--

Eani nekon a eramu ya? What do you think?
Kuani e kore, I will give it to you.

119.—The first person has, moreover, forms corresponding to the English objective case. They are en for the singular “me”, and un and i for the plural “us”, e.g.:--
Nei guru en kik, he struck me.
Seta en emik, the dog barked at me.
Kamui un kara, God made us.
Wakka un kore, give us some water.
I omap, he loves us.
Nei guru i kik, he struck us.
Umma a-o yakka i enkata mun utasa, even though we go on horseback the grass reaches over us.

120.—In the second person the objective case is tendered by e for the singular, and echi for the plural; never by the longer forms given in Section 1; e.g.:--
Seta e kuba, the dog will bite you.
Umma e kohoketu, the horse will kick you.
Kuani echi uitek ash, I will employ you.
Soyai echi chotcha na, the wasp will sting you.

121.—The action of the first person upon the second is indicated by placing the objective of the person before the Verb, and word ash after it; thus:--
Kuani echi kik ash, I will beat on you (plural).
Kuani e omap ash, I love you (singular).
Chi utara echi nure ash, we will tell you (plural).
Chi utara e kore ash, we will give it to you (singular).

122.--When construed with passive verbs, the second person takes the substantive verb an after the verb; e.g.
E omap an, you are loved.
Echi kara an, ye are made.

123.—The third person has no special forms for the objective case, thus:--
Tan utara a-kik nangoro, they will be struck.
Nei ainu a-ronnu wa isam, those men have killed.

124.—Postpositions sometimes take the objective case of pronouns, and sometimes the full form; e.g.:--
En orowa oman, he went from me.
Un oshi ek, come behind us.
Aokai otta perai ambe okai ruwe he an? Have you any fishing tackle?
Eani orowa no arapa guru, the person who went after you.


125.—The possessive forms of pronouns are obtained by adding koro, sometimes softened into goro, to the personal pronoun. Koro means “to possess”; e.g.:--

Ku koro, my. Chi koro, our.
E koro, thine. Echi koro, your.
Tan guru koro, his or her. Tan okai utara koro, their.
Nei guru koro, his or her. Nei okai utara koro, their.
To an guru koro, his or her. To an okai utara koro, their.

126.—The double form may be used; thus:--


Kuani ku goro, my. Chi utara chi koro, our.
Eani e koro, thy. Echi utara echi koro, your.

127.—Sometimes a-koro is used instead of chi koro, but not often. When there is no likelihood of ambiguity, the word koro is dropped; e.g.


Ku michi, my father. Chi uni, our home.
E habo, thy mother. Echi ottena, your chief.


128.—The relative pronouns may be expressed in the following manner;--

(a.) With the words sekoro and ari; thus:--
Ainu sekoro aye utara, the people who are called Ainu.
Shirau ari aye kikiri, the insects called gad-flies.
(b.) With the verb used attributively; e.g.
A-raige-guru, the person who was killed (lit. the killed person).
Ainu raige guru, the person who killed a man (lit. the person killing man).
Umma o guru, the person who rides the horse (lit. the horse riding person).


129.—The indefinite pronouns are as follows:--
Nen neyakka, \
Nen nen neyakka, Anyone, everyone, whosoever.
Nen ne kuru ka, /

Nep neyakka, \
Nep nep neyakka, / Anything everything, whatsoever.

Inan neyakka, \
Inambe neyakka / Either, whatever, whichever.

Nepka, something. Nenka, someone.


130.—The interrogative pronouns are:--
Hunna or hunnak, who? Inan or inan ike, which?
Hemanda or makanak, what? Nekon a, what kind?




131.—Verbs, in the Ainu language, have but one mood, namely, the indicative. The imperative and all the indirect or oblique moods, as well as the desiderative forms and all the tenses, are expressed by means of separate words. No verb, therefore, can be conjugated without the use of various auxiliaries.

132.—These auxiliaries are, for the present tense, as follows:--
(a.) Ruwe ne.
These words indicate that a subject is concluded, or a sentence finished. They therefore equal what is commonly called “the conclusive form.”
(b.) Shiri ne.
Shiri is a verb meaning “to be doing”. When placed after other verbs, it indicates that the action is still going on.
(c.) Kor’an.
Kor’an is short for koro an, and means “to be possessing”. When used as an auxiliary to verbs, it, like shiri ne, signifies that the action is still in progress. It expresses, so to speak, “the very act”.
(d.) Tap an.
The words tap an mean “it is so”, and, added to verbs, they give them an emphatic force. It is as though one said, “it is so, and no mistake”.

133.—For the past tense the following auxiliaries are used:--
(a.) Nisa.
This word seems to be the proper auxiliary for the past tense. Its real meaning doubtful.
(b.) Okere.
Okere is a verb meaning “to finish”; and, when added to other verbs, gives them a conclusive force. When so used, it resembles the English perfect tense.
(c.) Awa.
This word is a passive participle meaning “being”, “having been”. When placed after a verb, it indicates that one thing having been done, another was commenced, e.g.
Ki awa, oman ruwe ne, having done it, he went away.
(d.) A-eramu shin’ne.
For the past tense of eating and drinking, the words a-eramu shin’ne are sometimes used; e.g.
Ibe a-eramu shin’ne, I have eaten, or finished eating.
Iku a-eramu shin’ne, I have drunk, or finished drinking.

134.—The letter a is a passive particle. Eramu is a verb meaning “to understand”, “to know”. Shin’ne is a shortened form of shiri ne, mentioned above under No. 2 (b). Thus ibe a eramu shin’ne really means “I am in a state of knowing that I have eaten”.

135.—The future tense.
Only one auxiliary is used to indicate future time, viz. nangoro. Like the rest, it also follows the verb to which it has reference.

136.—The words ruwe ne may be added to the root or to either of the above auxiliaries; and the particle na, which has also a conclusive force in it, may follow them.

137.—Both the past and future tenses may be indicated by adverbs of time being placed before the person of the verb. In such cases, the auxiliaries may be retained or omitted at pleasure.

138.—It will be seen by reference to the passive voice, that, with the second person singular and plural, the verb an always follows the chief verb. An is the substantive verb “to be”.

139.—The verbs of the Ainu language naturally resolve themselves into two divisions, viz.:--
(a.) Those of unchanging stem. To this class belong all verbs ending otherwise than in ra or ro.
(b.) Those whose stems change. These verbs end only in ra or ro. The two verbs kik, “to strike”, and kara, “to make”, have been given as illustrations of these two categories.





140.—Present Tense.
(a.) The first Present tense.

Ku kik, I strike. Chi kik, we strike.
E kik, you strike. Echi kik, ye strike.
Kik, (he) strikes. Kik (they) strike.

A-en kik, I am struck. A-un kik, we are struck.
E kik an, you are struck. Echi kik an, ye are struck.
A-kik, (he) is struck. A-kik, (they) are struck.

(b.)—The present tense with the auxiliary ruwe ne.

Ku kik ruwe ne, I strike. Chi kik ruwe ne, we strike.
E kik ruwe ne, you strike. Echi kik ruwe ne, ye strike.
Kik ruwe ne, (he) strikes. Kik ruwe ne, (they) strike.

A-en kik ruwe ne, I am struck. A-un kik ruwe ne, we are struck.
E kik an ruwe ne, you are struck. Echi kik an ruwe ne, ye are struck.
A-kik ruwe ne, (he) is struck. A-kik ruwe ne, (they) are struck.

(c.)—The present tense with the words shiri ne.

Ku kik shiri ne, I am striking. Chi kik shiri ne, we are striking.
E kik shiri ne, you are striking. Echi kik shiri ne, ye are striking.
Kik shiri ne, (he) is striking. Kik shiri ne, (they) are striking.

A-en kik shiri ne, I am being struck. A-un kik shiri ne, we are being struck.
E kik an shiri ne, you are being struck. Echi kik an shiri ne, ye are being struck.
A-kik shiri ne, (he) is being struck. A-kik shiri ne, (they) are being struck.

(d.)—The present tense with koro an.

Ku kik kor’an, I am striking. Chi kik kor’an, we are striking.
E kik kor’an, you are striking. Echi kik kor’an, ye are striking.
Kik kor’an, (he) is striking. Kik kor’an, (they) are striking.

A-en kik kor’an, I am being struck. A-un kik kor’an, we are being struck.
E kik an kor’an, you are being struck. E-chi kik an kor’an, ye are being struck.
A-kik kor’an, (he) is being struck. A-kik kor’an, they are being struck.

(e.)--The present tense with ruwe tap an.

Ku kik ruwe tap an, I strike. Chi kik ruwe tap an, we strike.
E kik ruwe tap an, you strike. Echi kik ruwe tap an, you strike.
Kik ruwe tap an, (he) strikes. Kik ruwe tap an, (they) strike.

A-en kik ruwe tap an, I am struck. A-un kik ruwe tap an, we are struck.
E kik an ruwe tap an, you are struck. Echi kik an ruwe tap an, ye are struck.
A-kik ruwe tap an, (he) is struck. A-kik ruwe tap an, (they) are struck.

141.—Past Tense.
(a.) The past tense with nisa.

Ku kik nisa, I struck. Chi kik nisa, we struck.
E kik nisa, you struck. Echi kik nisa, ye struck.
Kik nisa, (he) struck. Kik nisa, (they) struck.

A-en kik nisa, I was struck. A-un kik nisa, we are struck.
E kik an nisa, you were struck. Echi kik an nisa, ye were struck.
A-kik nisa, (he) was struck. A-kik nisa, (they) were struck.

(b.) The past tense with okere.

Ku kik okere, I struck. Chi kik okere, we struck.
E kik okere, you struck. Echi kik okere, ye struck.
Kik okere, (he) struck. Kik okere, (they) struck.

A-en kik okere, I was struck. A-un kik okere, we were struck.
E kik an okere, you were struck. Echi kik an okere, ye were struck.
A-kik okere, (he) was struck. A-kik okere, (they) were struck.

(c.) The past tense with awa. In certain combinations this form is equal to the English perfect tense:--

Ku kik awa, I have struck, or I struck.
K kik awa, you have struck, or you struck.
Kik awa, (he) has struck, or (he) struck.
Chi kik awa, we have struck, or we struck.
Echi kik awa, ye have struck, or ye struck.
Kik awa, (they) have struck, or (they) struck.

A-en kik awa, I have been struck, or I was struck.
E kik an awa, you have been struck, or you were struck.
A-kik awa, (he) has been struck, or (he) was struck.

[It would be equally correct to translate awa by “having been”, as:--e kik an awa, “you having been struck”.]

A-un kik awa, we have been struck, or we were struck.
Echi kik an awa, ye have been struck, or ye were struck.
A-kik awa, (they) have been struck, or (they) were struck.

142.—The future tense.

Ku kik nangoro, I will strike. Chi kik nangoro, we will strike.
E kik nangoro, you will strike. Echi kik nangoro, ye will strike.
Kik nangoro, (he) will strike. Kik nangoro, (they) will strike.

A-en kik nangoro, I shall be struck. A-un kik nangoro,we shall be struck.
E kik an nangoro, you will be struck. Echi kik an nangoro,ye will be struck.
A-kik nangoro, (he) will be struck. A-kik nangoro, (they) will be struck.

143.—The Imperative is expressed thus:--
Kik, strike thou. Kik yan, strike ye.
Kik anro, let us strike.

E a-kik, be thou struck. Echi a-kik yan, be ye struck.
A-un kik anro, let us be struck.

144.—Desire is expressed by the word rusui; e.g.
Ku kik rusui, I desire to strike. Chi kik rusui, we desire to strike.
E kik rusui, you desire to strike. Echi kik rusui, ye desire to strike.
Kik rusui, (he) desires to strike. Kik rusui, (they) desire to strike.

A-en kik rusui, I was desired to strike. A-un kik rusui, we were desired to strike.
E kik an rusui, you were desired to strike. Echi kik an rusui, ye were desired to strike.
A-kik rusui, (he) was desired to strike. A-kik rusui, (they) were desired to strike.

145.—The Potential Mood may be expressed in two ways; (a) by the word etokush; (b) by the words kusu ne ap.

(a.) The Potential with etokush.
Ku kik etokush, I must strike. Chi kik etokush, we must strike.
E kik etokush, you must strike. Echi kik etokush, ye must strike.
Kik etokush, (he) must strike. Kik etokush, (they) must strike.

A-en kik etokush, I must be struck. A-un kik etokush, we must be struck.
E kik an etokush, you must be struck. Echi kik an etokush, ye must be struck.
A-kik etokush, (he) must be struck. A-kik etokush, (they) must be struck.

(b.) The Potential with kusu ne ap.
Ku kik kusu ne ap ruwe ne, I ought to strike.
E kik kusu ne ap ruwe ne, you ought to strike.
Kik kusu ne ap ruwe ne, (he) ought to strike.

Chi kik kusu ne ap ruwe ne, we ought to strike.
Echi kik kusu ne ap ruwe ne, ye ought to be struck.
Kik kusu ne ap ruwe ne, (they) ought to strike.

A-en kik kusu ne ap ruwe ne, I ought to be struck.
E kik an kusu ne ap ruwe ne, you ought to be struck.
A-kik kusu ne ap ruwe ne, (he) ought to be struck.

A-un kik kusu ne ap ruwe ne, we ought to be struck.
Echi kik an kusu ne ap ruwe ne, you ought to be struck.
A-kik kusu ne ap ruwe ne, (they) ought to be struck.

146.—Concession, condition, and hypothesis are expressed in the following ways:--
Ku kik koroka, though I strike.
Ku kik chiki, if I strike.
Ku kik yak, if I strike.
Ku kik yak anakne, if I strike.
Ku kik yak ne, if I strike.
Ku kik yak un, if I strike.
Ku kik ko, if I strike.
Ku kik ita, when I strike.
Ku kik koro, when I strike.
Ku kik yakka, even if I strike.
[N.B.—For examples of the uses of these particles, the student is referred to Chapter X.]

147.—Any part of the conjugation of a verb, the imperative mood excepted, may be made negative in either of the following ways:--
(a.)—By placing the word shomo or seenne before the person of a verb, thus:--
Shomo (or seenne) ku kik ruwe ne, I do not strike.
Shomo (or seenne) a-un kik nisa ruwe tap an, we were not struck.
(b.)—By placing shomo ki after the verb in any of the present tense forms, and between the verb and nangoro of the future tense, thus:--
Ku kik shomo ki ruwe ne, I do not strike.
A-en kik shomo ki nangoro, I shall not be struck.

148.—The negative imperative is:--
Iteki kik, do not strike. Iteki kik yan, do not strike.
Iteki e a-kik, be thou not struck. Iteki echi a-kik yan, be ye not struck.

149.—Doubtfulness is expressed by the word kotoman being placed after the verb, thus:--
Kik kotoman, he will probably strike; or, it is thought that he will strike.
A-un kik shomo ki kotoman, we shall probably not be struck.

150.—The English participles may be rendered as follows:--
Kik wa, striking. kik nisa wa, having struck.
Kik ine, striking.
Kik kushne, about to strike.

A-kik wa, having been struck
Kik awa, having been struck.



151.—For the sake of brevity this paradigm is given in an abridged form:--
Ku kara, I make, etc. Chi kara, we make, etc.
A-en kara, I am made, etc. A-un kara, we are made, etc.
Ku kan ruwe ne, I make, etc. Chi kan ruwe ne, we make, etc.
A-en kan ruwe ne, I am made, etc. A-un kan ruwe ne, we are made, etc.

152.—It should be noted here that before ruwe, ra and ro are always changed into n. Shiri ne and kor’an take the full form kara before them.

153.—It will be seen, in the past and future tenses, that ra and ro also become n before n; thus:--
Ku kan nisa, I made. Chi kan nisa, we made.
Ku kan nangoro, I will make, etc. Chi kan nangoro, we will make, etc.
A-en kan nisa, I was made. A-un kan nisa, we were made.
A-en kan nangoro,I shall be made, etc. A-un kan nangoro, we shall be made, etc.

154.—All the other parts of verbs ending in ra and ro are conjugated exactly like Class 1; the student is therefore referred to the verb kik.

155.—The following list contains a few of the most common verbs ending in ra and ro:--
Annokara, to defeat. Eshokoro, to believe.
Etu-kara, to wipe the nose. Ikakoro, to gallop.
Eyukara, to mock. Koro, to have.
Horopsekara, to sip up. Koramkoro, to beg.
Hunara, to search for. Maushoro, to whistle.
Ikirikara, to put in order. Mokoro, to sleep.
Ingara, to look at. Omoikoro, to commit adultery.
Kokarakara, to roll up. Temkoro, to embrace.
Koramnukara, to tempt. Ukopahaukoro, to hold intercourse.
Nukara, to see. Upaurekoro, to contradict.
Tapkara, to dance. Ukoramkoro, to hold counsel.
Uchishkara, to weep together.
Utomnukara, to marry.


156.—There are some verbs which have special forms to indicate whether the object referred to be of the singular or plural number. The words resu, “to bring up”, and uk, “to take”, have been selected as examples of them, and one form of the present tense, indicative mood, is here given to show the manner in which such verbs are conjugated:--
(a.)—The verb resu.
Ku resu, I bring up one. Chi reshpa ash, we bring up many.
E resu, you bring up one. Echi reshpa ash, ye bring up many.
Resu, (he) brings up one. Reshpa ash, (they) bring up many.

A-en resu, I am brought up. A-un reshpa ash, we are brought up.
E resu an, you are brought up. Echi reshpa an, ye are brought up.
A-resu, (he) is brought up. A-reshpa ash, (they) are brought up.

(b.)—the verb uk.
Ku uk, I take one. Chi uina, we take many.
E uk, you take one. Echi uina, ye take many.
Uk, (he) takes one. Uina, (they) take many.

A-en uk, I am taken. A-un uina ash, we are taken.
E uk an, you are taken. Echi uina an, you are taken.
A-uk, (he) is taken. A-uina ash, (they) are taken.

157.—The following list contains a few verbs which belong to this category:--
Ahun, one to enter. Ahup ash, many to enter.
Arapa, one to go. Paye ash, many to go.
Ash, one to stand. Roshki ash, many to stand.
Aship, one to flower. Ashippa ash, many to flower.
Ek, one to come. Ariki ash, many to come.
Heashi, one to begin. Heashpa ash, many to begin.
Hekatu, one to be born. Hekatpa ash, many to be born.
Hepirasa, one to blossom. Hepiraspa ash, many to blossom.
Hetuku, one to come forth. Hetukba ash, many to come forth.
Hopuni, one to fly. Hopunba ash, many to fly.
Hoshipi, one to return. Hoshippa ash, many to return.
Hotuikara, to call one. Hotuipa ash, to call many.
Hoyupu, one to run. Hoyuppa ash, many to run.
Mesu, to break one. Mespa ash, to break many.
Oashin, to send one forth. Oaship ash, to send many forth.
Pirasa, to open one out. Piraspa ash, to open many out.
Raige, to kill one. Ronnu ash, to kill many.
Ran, one to come down. Rap ash, many to come down.
Resu, to bring one up. Reshpa ash, to bring many up.
Rise, to root one up. Rishpa ash, to root up many.
San, one to descend. Sap ash, many to descend.
Soso, to flay one. Sospa ash, to flay many.
Tui, to cut one. Tuipa ash, to cut many.
Turi, to stretch one out. Turuba ash, to stretch many out.
Uk, to take one. Uina ash, to take many.
Shipirasa, one to increase. Shipiraspa ash, many to increase.


158.—Intransitive verbs are made transitive and causative in the following manners.

159.—Verbs ending in ra, ri, and ro, change the final vowel into e; e.g.:--
Eshokoro, to believe. Eshokore, to cause to believe.
Hachiri, to fall. Hachire, to throw down.
Kara, to make. Kare, to cause to make.
Koro, to possess. Kore, to give.
Mokoro, to sleep. Mokore, to put to sleep.
Nukara, to see. Nukare, to show.

160.—Other verbs add ge, ka, te, de, or re to the stem, usage alone deciding in each case which of the suffixes shall be employed; e.g.:--
(a.) Verbs which take ge:--
Ahun, to enter. Ahunge, to put in.
Rai, to die. Raige, to kill.
Ran, to come down. Range, to let down.
San, to go down. Sange, to send down.
Yan, to go up. Yange, to take up.

(b.) Verbs which take ka:--
Isam, there is not. Isamka, to annihilate.
Iunin, to suffer pain. Iuninka, to agonise.
Kotuk, to touch or stick. Kotukka, to stick on.
Ush, to go out. Ushka, to extinguish.
Uhuye, to burn. Uhuyeka, to light.

(c.) Verbs which take te:--
Ash, to stand. Ashte, to set up.
Ash, to rain. Ashte, to cause to rain.
At, to shine. Atte, to cause to shine.
Chish, to cry. Chishte, to make to cry.
Eshirikopash, to lean against. Eshirikopashte, to set against.

(d.) Verbs which take de:--
An, to be. Ande, to put down, to place.
Oman, to go away. Omande, to send away.
Rikin, to ascend. Rikinde, to cause to ascend.

(e.) Verbs which take re:--
Arapa, to go. Arapare, to send.
Hekatu, to be born. Hekature, to cause to be born.
Hetuku, to grow. Hetukure, To make grow.
Oma, to be inside. Omare, to put in.
Ru, to melt. Rure, to melt down.

160.—(a.) Transitive verbs are made causative by adding re to them:--
E, to eat. Ere, to cause to eat, to feed.
Ibe, to eat. Ibere, to cause to eat, to feed.
Iku, to drink. Ikure, to make drink.
Ki, to do. Kire, to make do.
Shikkashima, to seize. Shikkashimare, to make seize.
Ta, to draw. Tare, to make draw.

161.—Sometimes verbs are made doubly causative. The following are a few examples:--
Ahun, to enter; ahunge, to send in; ahungere, to cause to send in.
Ash, to stand; ashte, to set up; ashtere, to cause to set up.
Ibe, to eat; ibere, to feed; iberere, to cause to feed.
San, to go down; sange, to send down; sangere, to cause to send down.

162.—Causatives, like the root form of verbs, admit of both an active and passive conjugation, as:--
Ku sangere ruwe ne, I cause to send down.
A-en sangere ruwe ne, I was caused to be sent down.
Wakka a-tare, he was caused to draw water.


163.—Some verbs may be made reflexive by prefixing the word yai, “self”, to them. This again may, in cases where it is necessary to express emphasis or make a sentence more clear, be preceded by the word yaikota, which means oneself; e.g.:--

Yai-kik or yaikota yai-kik, to strike oneself.
Yai-eoripakka or yaikota yai-eoripakka, to humble oneself.
Yai-raige or yaikota yai-raige, to kill oneself; to commit suicide.
Yai-tui or yaikota yai-tui, to cut oneself.

164.—The following list contains a few reflexive verbs:--
Yaierampoken, to be disappointed.
Yaimonekote, to die by accident.
Yaietokooiki, to prepare oneself.
Yainennenu, to pick the head.
Yaiirawere, to covet.
Yainu, to think.
Yaikahotanu, to be suspicious.
Yaiparoiki, to labour alone for a livelihood.
Yaikannekara, to reform oneself.
Yaikatakara, to long for.
Yaipataraye, to surmise, to anticipate, to suspect.
Yaikatande, to refresh oneself.
Yaikeukoro, to be nearly killed.
Yaipaye, to confess.
Yaikeumshu, to be in very great trouble, to be at death’s door.
Yaipuni, to deride.
Yaipushi, to confess.
Yaikisakisa, to shake oneself.
Yairamekote, to live a single life.
Yaikoibe, to be greedy.
Yairamekotpa, to live a married life.
Yaikoirushka, to be sad.
Yairamkopashte, to be clever.
Yaikokatpak, to repent.
Yaisamge, to be unmixed.
Yaikopak, to be sorry for.
Yaisambepokash, to be down-hearted.
Yaikopuni, to be selfish.
Yaiesanniyo, to be persevering or industrious.
Yaikoshiramshui, to consider.
Yaikoshiromare, to be careful of, to be hospitable.
Yaishinnaire, to set by itself.
Yaieshinniukesh, to be unable or incompetent.
Yaikowepekere, to feel remorse.
Yaikush, to be ashamed.
Yaitunashka, to hurry oneself.
Yaioitaksakte, to condemn oneself.
Yaiuitek or yaiuntak, to go to relieve oneself.
Yaiotupekari, to save up, to be careful of.
Yaiwairu, to err, to transgress.

165.—The words uko, uwe, prefixed to some verbs indicate mutuality; thus:--
Ukocharange, to argue.
Ukoheraye, to resemble one another.
Ukoirushka, to be angry with one another.
Ukoiyohaikara, many to speak evil of one.
Ukokoiki, many to fight one.
Ukoomam, to visit one another.
Ukopahaunu, to hold intercommunication.
Ukopoye, to stir, to mix.
Ukopoyekai, to visit one another.
Ukorampoktuye, many to neglect one.
Ukoramkoro, to hold counsel.
Ukoshuwama, a quarrel between husband and wife.
Ukotereke, to wrestle.
Ukotukka, to close.

Uwechutko, to differ from one another.
Uwekarange, to draw near or approach one another.
Uwekarapa, to congregate, to assemble.
Uwekatairotke, to love one another.
Uwekikkik, to knock together.
Uwekokandama, to deceive one another.
Uwekuchikanna, to be double-faced.
Uwenitomom, to look at one another.
Uwepekere, to converse together.
Uweshikarun, to desire to meet one another.
Uweshinnai, to be different from one another.
Uweshinneatki, to be of the same mind.
Uwetunangara, to meet.
Uwetushmak, to race.
Uweyairamikashure, to strive for the mastery.

166.—Thoroughness of action may be expressed by placing the word oara, or toiko, before some verbs; e.g.:--
Oan-raige, to kill outright.
Oara-erampeutek, not to understand at all.
Oara-paye, quite gone.
Oara-pereba, to cleave through.
Oat-tuye, to cut through.

Toiko-kik, to hit hard.
Toiko-otereke, thoroughly to trample under.
Toiko-otke, to prick severly.
Toiko-wende, to render quite useless.
Toiko-kira, to run quite away.

[N.B.—Notice in the two words oan-raige and oat-tuye, the change of ra into n before the letter r, and into t before t.]

167.—Verbs, by taking the word kane or koro after them, are thereby changed into adverbs, e.g.:--

Kik-kane, whilst striking. Mina-kane, whilst laughing.
Kira-kane, whilst running away. Oman-kane, whilst going.
Kik koro, whilst striking. Tapkara koro, whilst dancing.
Nina koro, whilst carrying wood. Ye koro, whilst telling.

168.—Many nouns are turned into verbs by taking kara or koro after them. The following are a few examples:--
(Kara, to do.)
Ikiri, a seam. Ikiri-kara, to stew.
Attush, Ainu cloth. Attush-kara, to weave.
Chisei, a house. Chisei-kara, to build.
Chokchokse, a kiss. Chokchokse-kara, to kiss.
Omke, a cold. Omke-kara, to take cold.
Pakari, a measure. Pakari-kara, to measure.
Po, a child. Po-ne-kara, to adopt.
Raichish, lamentation for the dead. Raichish-kara, to weep for the dead.
Toi, a garden. Toi-kara, to work in a garden.
Tushiri, a grave. Tushiri-kara, to bury.

(Koro, to possess)
Hau, the voice. Hau-koro, to crow.
Honi, the stomach. Hon-koro, to conceive.
Kaya, a sail. Kaya-koro, to set sail.
Kut, a belt, a girdle. Kut-koro, to gird up.
Nok, an egg. Nok-koro, to lay eggs.
Onne, oldness. Onne-koro, to grow old.
Puma, wages. Puma-koro, to receive wages.
Rupne, maturity. Rupne-koro, to be full grown.
Tashum, sickness. Tashum-koro, to be sick.
Urai, a fish-trap. Urai-koro, to trap fish.



169.—Some adverbs are merely adjectives followed by the particle no; e.g.:--

Ashiri, new. Ashin no, newly.
Hoshike, previous. Hoshike no, previously.
Oupeka, upright. Oupeka no, uprightly.
Pirika, good. Pirika no, well.
Pon, little, small. Pon no, a few, a little.
Ramu an, wise. Ramu an no, wisely.
Son, true. Son no, truly.
Tuima, far. Tuima no, far.
Tunashi, quick. Tunashi no, quickly.

170.—Many verbs may be turned into adverbs or adverbial phrases by placing the word kane after them; thus:--

Apkash, to walk. Apkash kane, whilst walking.
Arapa, to go. Arapa kane, whilst going.
E, to eat. E kane, whilst eating.
Mina, to laugh. Mina kane, whilst laughing.
Tapkara, to dance. Tapkara kane, whilst dancing.
Uk, to take. Uk kane, whilst taking.
Yan, to go up. Yan kane, whilst going up.

171.—Verbs may also be changed into adverbial phrases by putting the word koro after them; thus:--

Ahun, to enter. Ahun koro, when or whilst entering.
Iku, to drink. Iku koro, when or whilst drinking.
Iwange, to use. Iwange koro, when or whilst using.
Ki, to do. Ki koro, when or whilst doing.
Maushok, to yawn. Maushok koro, when or whilst yawning.
Ohare, to empty. Ohare koro, when or whilst emptying.

172.—The following are some adverbs of time:--
Hembara ne yakka, at any time; always.
Hoshike numan, the day before yesterday.
Ita, when (relative).
Kanna kanna, often, again and again.
Kanna shui, again.
Kesto, daily.
Kesto kesto, daily, every day.
Nei oroto, then.
Ne ita, then.
Nishatta, to-morrow.
Numani, yesterday.
Numani onuman, last night.
Okaketa, afterwards.
Oyashim, the day after to-morrow.
Oyashimshimge, the day following the day after to-morrow.
Ramma, always.
Rapoketa, whilst.
Shiro onuman, evening.
Tane, now.
Tanto, to-day.
Teeda, in acient times.
Teoro, henceforth.

173.—The following are some adverbs of place:--
Choropoketa, beneath.
Hange, near.
Hangeko, far.
Herikashi, upwards.
Horikashi, downwards.
Ikushta, beyond.
Koehange, near.
Kotchakita, in front of.
Kushta, yonder.
Na an un ne yakka, everywhere, anywhere.
Ne ita ne yakka, anywhere, everywhere.
Oshiketa, inside.
Oshimaki, behind.
Rikta, above.
Samata, beside.
Teda, here (at this place).
Tepeka, here (this side).
Toada, there (at that side).
Topeka, there (that side).

[N.B.]—The termination ta, which is seen in so many adverbs, is in reality a postposition meaning “in”, “to”, or “at”. (See No. 246.)

174.—The following are a few adverbs of degree:--
Ebitta, all, every. Ouse, only.
Mashkin no, too much. Pakno, sufficient, as far as.
Naa, more yet. Patek, only, all.
Nani-hungo, almost. Pero-seruge, for the most part.
Nimara, half. Ukotamge, about.
Obitta, all, the whole. Upakno, sufficient, as far as.

175.—The following are adverbs of manner:--
Arikinne, positively.
Eyam no, carefully.
Hetopa-hetopa, backwards and forwards.
Inne no, in crowds.
Keutum atte no, with a fixed purpose.
Kuttoku, upside down.
Ne no, thus.
Nitanne, fast (used only of walking).
Oheuge sak no, rightly.
Ratchi-tara wa, peaceably.
Shine ikinne, unitedly.
Shinen shinen ne, singly.
Shiwende, slowly (used of walking).
Ukoiram no, conjointly.
Utura no, together.
Uwatte no, in multitudes.

176.—The following are some adverbs of interrogation:--
Hemanda gusu, why?
Hembara, when?
Hempak, how much, how many?
Hunakta, where?
Hunak un, whither?
Ine, whither?
Nakwe, whence?
Nei pakno, how far?
Nekon a, how? what kind?
Nep gusu, why?
Nep pakno, how much?

177.—The following are the adverbs of affirmation:--
E, yes (locally “a”).
Ohaine, just so, so it is.
Ruwe, yes.
Ruwe un, yes.
Yak’un, yes.

178.—Negation is expressed by the following words:--
Erampeutek, not to understand.
Eramushkare, not to understand.
Isam, not to be.
Seenne, no, not.
Shomo, no, not.
Uwa, not to know.

179.—The following expressions should be noted:--
Naa shomo, not yet.
Hembara ne yakka shomo, never.
Ramma shomo, never.

180.—Questions are often asked with the particle he and the verb an, “to be”; e.g.
Hunak un e arapa ruwe he an? Where are you going?
Nep gusu ariki ruwe he an? Why has he come?

181.—Questions may also be asked by means of the particle a or ya. A is more polite than ya:--
E koro michi okai ya? Is your father at home ?
E oman a? Have you been?
Nekon a a-kara kunip ne? What ought I to do?

182.—Very often no particle is used to express a question, the adverb itself being sufficient to indicate that a question is being asked. The voice is also raised, as in speaking English; e.g.:--
Nakwe ek? Whence has he come?
Ine un? Where are you going to?
Hemanda ki? What is he doing?
Nekon a a-ye? What is it called?



183.—The chief Ainu interjections are as follows:--
Ainu bota! Ah me!
Ayo ! a cry of pain.
Chôtara! Hurrah!
Eyororope! An exclamation of pleasure. Sometimes used after a song, but especially on the receipt of some present.
Etu-kishima! excl. of surprise.
Haye! a cry of pain.
Haye ku ramu! excl. of surprise ; dear me !
Hut! excl. of surprise or disgust.
Irambotarare! you noisy one!
Iramshitnere! fidgetty! Restless!
Ishirikurantere! well I never!
Isenramte! at it again!
Kik-kik! excl. of surprise. Used only by women.
Parasekoro! hurrah!
Wooi! a call for help in distress.

184.—The words for “thank you” are:--
Hap-hap or hap, used only by women and girls.
Yai-iraigere, used only by men and boys.



185.—It has been thought advisable to treat the particles a, e, i, o, and u separately, because their meanings differ very widely according as they are used as prefixes or suffixes.

186.—The student need scarcely be warned against confounding, for instance, the i which is used as a suffix to turn verbs into abstract substantives with the i which is prefixed to verbs to intensify their meaning, or the e meaning “you” with the e meaning “to”. Etymologically, no doubt, such words are quite distinct; but, for practical purposes, the several usages of each particle may best be treated under a single heading.


A is very extensively used as a particle, and has a veriety of meanings.
187.—When prefixed to verbs in general, a has a passive signification; e.g.:--
Nu, to hear. A-nu, to be heard.
Nuye, to write. A-nuye, to be written.
Raige, to kill. A-raige, to be killed. See No. 267 (a).

188.—When prefixed to the verb koro, “to possess”, a and koro combined express the possessive plural of the first personal pronoun; thus:--

Akoro michi, our father. Akon nishpa, our master.
Akoro ekashi, our ancestors. Akorope, our things.

189.—Sometimes, however, akoro is used as the second person singular of the possessive pronoun.

It is considered to be a very polite mode of expression; thus:--

Akoro michi may stand for e koro michi, your father, and akoro habo for e koro habo, your mother, though not so commonly used; nor is the word koro so often used with e as without it. Thus e koro michi is less often heard than e michi, and e koro habo than e habo. But a can never be used as a personal pronoun, whether singular or plural, without the addition of koro.

189-a.—In a few rare cases the particle a is used for the 3rd person singular of the personal pronoun. See No. 112-a.

190.—After verbs, the particle a often denotes interrogation; thus:--
E oman a? Have you been? Ek a? Has he come?
Shisam ne a? Is it a Japanese? Tan okaibe e koro pe a? Are these things yours?

191.—Used after a verb which is spoken in answer to a question,
a signifies either affirmation or past time; thus:--
E oman a? Ku oman a, Have you been? I have been.
Ek a? Ek a, Has he come? He has come.

The distinction between the two a’s is indicated by the tone of voice. The second a is, in all probability, a corruption of an, which, added to the root form of a verb, has a conclusive or affirmative force.


The particle e is of extensive use, as the following examples will show:--

192.—Prefixed to verbs in general, e is the second person singular of the personal pronoun; e.g.:--
E kik, you strike. E oman, you go.
E raige, you kill. E apkash, you walk.

193.—Used with the verb koro, to “possess”, e and koro together become the possessive pronoun of the second person singular; thus:--
E koro sapa (also e sapa), your head.
E koro makiri (also e makiri), your knife.
[N.B.—It is always better to drop the koro, when there is no fear of ambiguity.]

194.—Prefixed to some verbs, the particle e has the power of turning an intransitive into a transitive; thus:--
Kira, to run away. Ekira, to run away with.
Mik, to bark. Emik, to bark at.
Mina, to laugh. Emina, to laugh at.

195.—Similarly prefixed to certain adjectives, it gives them, so to speak, a transitive power; thus:--
Hapuru, soft. E-hapuru, unable to endure.
Nishte, hard. E-nishte, able to endure.
Pirika, good. E-pirika, bent on gain.
Toranne, idle. E-toranne, not caring to do.

196.—In a few cases the particle e is used as a preposition meaning “to”; thus:--
Ekim ne, to the mountains (to work).
Ekim un, to the (particular place in the) mountains.
Epish ne, to the sea-shore, (for work or business).
Echup pok un chup ahun, the sun sets in the west.


The vowel i, used as a separate particle, has the following significations:--

197.—Prefixed to some verbs, it has an intensifying power; thus:--
Nu, to hear. Inu, to listen.
Nukara, to see. In’gara, to look at.

198.—Prefixed to other words, i indicates the first person plural objective case:--
I kik an, he struck us. I noshpa, they follow us.
I kara an, he made us. I pa, they found us.

Kikiri i-pa ko orowa I noshpa, When the insects have found us,
they will follow us.

199.—When suffixed to verbs, i has the power to turn them into nouns; thus:--
Yainu, to think. Yainu-i, a thought. See Nos. 30-34.

200.—The particle i has also the idea of time and place in it; thus:--
Ne i pak no ne yakka, for ever.
Ne i ta pak no ne yakka, what place soever.
Shine an i ta, at one place (once upon a time).
Pet otta san i ta ichaniu a-nukara, When he went down to the river, he saw a salmon-trout (a salmon-trout was seen).


201.—The particle o, like e, is sometimes used as a preposition to nouns. Its signification is “from”; thus:--
Okim un, from the mountains.
Opish ne, from the sea-shore.
O-chupka un chup hetuku, the sun rises in the east.

202.—When the particle o is placed immediately after some nouns, it changes them into adjectives; e.g.:--
Kesh o chikoikip, an animal of different colours.
Shiriki o sarambe, a soft material with a pattern.
Shiriki o nonno, a variegated flower. See No. 59.

203.—When the verb ika, “to run over” (as water), is immediately preceded by o, its meaning is changed, thus:--
Ika, to run over.
0-ika, to step or jump over.
Nupuri o-ika, to cross mountains.
Sakiri o-ika, to jump a fence.
Wattesh o-ika, to step over a straw.
Atui o-ika ingara, to look across the sea.
Pet o-ika hotuyekara, to call to across a river.

204.—When o is used after shui, “a rat-hole” or pui, “a hole”, it must be translated by “to make” or “to bore”;
Erum shui o kor’an, the rat is making a hole.
Ainu pui o kor’an, the man is boring a hole.


205.—Prefixed to verbs, the particle u gives the sense of mutuality; e.g.:--

Koiki, to fight. Ukoiki, to fight one another.
Onnere, to know. Uonnere, to know one another.
Oshi arapa, to go behind. Uoshi paye, to go behind each other.
Raige, to kill. Uraige, to kill one another.

206.—For the words uko and uwe, used to indicate mutuality, see No. 165.

206.—(a.) The vowel u does not always immediately precede the verb to which it refers. Thus, for Kotan oro u-kopahaunu, we sometimes hear U kotan oro kopahaunu, “There is mutual intercourse between the villages”; and so on.



207.—Under the term Postposition are comprehended such words as in English are called Prepositions and Conjunctions. They are here given in alphabetical order, irrespective of the category under which their European equivalents would be classed. As will be seen, there are some words for which there are no exact English equivalents, and others again whose meaning varies according to the different connections in which they are used. It has therefore been considered advisable to give a large number of examples, in some cases, as illustrations. It should also be remarked that some of the following words are used before as well as after the words they govern, though most of them are used after only.

208.—Aige, “as”; “and so”; “with reference to which”, “thereupon”; e.g.:--
Ku ye aige, a-en kik. As I spoke, he struck me.
Ne-i orushpe ku ye ; aige, Ukomotte Ainu ene itaki. I told him the news; thereupon Mr. Ukomotte spoke thus.
Usaine usaine wenkatcham koro ruwe ne, sekoro, uwepaketa uwepaketa ku inu; aige, Mopet ta san wa ne-i orushpe ku uwepekennu. By degrees I heard that he had committed various misdemeanours; and so I went down to Mopet to inquire into the matter.

209.—Aine; “thereupon”, “upon which”.
Heikachi a wakka tare yakka a kopan; aine, Kamui irushka gusu, chup kamui samata a-ande ruwe ne. The lad even disliked to be made to draw water; thereupon, the gods being angry, they placed him in the side of the moon.

Rai, aine, utare obitta chish ruwe ne na. He died, upon which the Ainu all wept.

210.—Anak, anakne; “as regards”, “in reference to”.
These particles serve to isolate a word or sentence, and to give emphasis to a subject. When both anak and anakne are used in the same sentence, anak is more emphatic than anakne. Anakne, however, when standing alone, need not always be translated:--

Chikap anakne chikuni ka ren. The bird settles upon a tree.
Otteeda anakne seta reëp iporose. In ancient times dogs were called reëp.
Amam an, chep anakne an, yuk kam anak pon no ka isam ruwe ne. There is vegetable food and there is fish; but as for venison, there is none at all.

211.—Anko, ankoro; “when” (if).
An is the substantive verb “to be”, and ko is a contraction of koro, which means “to possess”.

Chikap ren anko ku tukan. I will shoot the bird when (if) it settles.
Ru hotom’ta reushi anko a-ep oro omarep, a vessel in which to put food (for) when one stays (to rest) on the road.

212.—Ani (locally ari); “with”, “by means of”, “taking”.
The word ani is a compound, whose parts are an “to be”, and the particle i (see Chapter IX., Section 3). In many places ani is corrupted into ari, so that, generally speaking, it matters little which form is used:--
Ai ani (ari) yuk raige ruwe ne. He kills deer with arrows.
Kuwa ani (ari) apkash. He walks by means of a stick.
Orowa, pishako niwatush ani wa pet otta san ruwe ne. And taking the ladle and bucket, he went down to the river.

213.—Awa (a past passive participle); “being”.
Wherever the participle awa is used, past time is signified. It appears to be the passive participle of the verb “to be”. It is always used conjunctively:--

Pana ta kotan un san ita, Ainu tunangara, awa, otta ene itaki. When he went down to the lower village, he met an Ainu, and spoke thus to him. (Lit. When he went down, an Ainu being met, he spoke thus to him.)

Teeda ne yakka usa-pirika miambe a-satke ruwe ne, awa, ikka-guru ikka wa isam. So formerly, when we hung out our wearing apparel to air, a thief stole it. (Lit. In ancient times also various good clothing being hung out to air, a thief stole them.)

214.—Chiki; “if”.
Ku arapa chiki, echi nure ash na. I will let you know if I go.
Ki chiki, pirika ruwe ne. It will be well if you do it.

215.—Choropok, choropok-i, choropok-i-ta, choropok un; “under’, “beneath”.
The particles i, ta, and un, which are here used with choropok, have a locative sense in them. Either of them therefore has the power to turn the postposition choropok into an adverb of place. (for “ta” and “un” see below, and for the particle “i” see Chapter IX., Section 3).

Set choropok, under the seat.
Shuop choropoki, the place under the box.
Chikuni choropokita, beneath the tree.
Mun choropok un, under the grass.

215(a.).—Ekopash; “against”, “leaning against”.
Tuman ekopash kina, the mat against the wall.
En ekopash, against me.
Ikushpe ekopash ainu, the man leaning against the post.

216.—Ene; “thus”, “so”, “this or that kind”, “such”.
En otta ene hawashi. He spoke thus to me.
Ene okaibe isam. There is no such kind of thing.
Teeda ne yakka ene shiri ki. It was also so done formerly.

217.—Enka, enkapeka, enkata; “over”, “above”.
The word enka means “over”, “above”; enkapeka, “the place above”, and enkata, “at the place above”. Peka, like ta, is an adverbial particle; it means “place” or “side”:--
En enka; over me.
Atui enkapeka chikap hoyupu. A bird is flying over the sea.
Pe enkata chikap an. There is a bird over the river.

218.—Hekota; “facing, “towards”.
En hekota; facing me.
Chisei hekota hosare wa ingara; to look towards the house.
Ekeshne hekota hosare; to look about from place to place.
Atui orun hekota hosare; to face the sea.
Nai hekota apkash; to walk towards the stream.

219.—Hemhem; “and”. Hemhem…hemhem; “both…and”.
The word hemhem may be used either once or twice in a sentence. When used but once, it equals the conjunction “and”; when used twice, it means “both…and”; thus:--
Tambe hemhem neiambe; this and that.
Tambe hemhem, neiambe hemhem; both this and that.

220.—Hene; “and”. Hene…hene; “both…and”.
Hene and hene…hene, have the same meaning as hemhem…hemhem, and are used in the same way; thus:--
Apto hene urara; rain and fog.
Seta hene, chironnup hene; both dogs and foxes.

221.—Hike; “as regards”, “in reference to”.
This word is only suffixed to verbs; thus:--
Ku nukar’ hike; in reference to what I see.
Ku inu hike; as regards what I hear.

222.—Ikushta; “beyond” (a long way off).
The particle i which is here used before kushta, is an intensifier. Thus, ikushta means “a long way off”;--
Pet ikushta, beyond the river (but far from it).
Pet kushta, beyond the river (but near it).

223.—Imakake, imakaketa; “then”, “after that”.
Aige, imakaketa arapa wa ye ruwe ne. So after that he went and told him.
Orowa, imatake, pet otta san ruwe ne na. And afterwards he went down to the river.

224.—Ine, “…ing”, “when”, “being”.
The word ine has a participial force and always follows a verb; thus:--
Orowa, kira-ine paspas kara guru orota arapa. And, running away, he went to a charcoal-burner.
Ariki-ine shirikap eshirikootke. When they came, they speared a sword-fish.

225.—Ka; “even”. Ka…ka, “both…and”; “neither…nor”.
Ka, when used only once, means “even”. When used twice with an affirmative verb, the two ka’s mean “both…and”; but when used with a negative, they mean “neither…nor”; thus:--
Chiramantep isam, yuk ka isam. There are no bears (or) even deer.
Ep ka isam, amip ka isam. There is neither food nor clothing.
Chep ka an, amam ka an. There is both fish and vegetable food.

226.—Ka; kata; “top”, “upon the top”.
Pira ka; the top of a cliff.
Chisei kata; on the top of the house.
Shiri kata; on the ground.

227.—Kashi, kashike, kashiketa, kashike-peka, kashikeketa; “over”, “upon”.
Kashi and kashike mean “over”, “above”; kashike-peka means “the place above”; kashikeketa and kashiketa mean “at the place above”; “upon”:--
E kashi or e kashike. Over you.
Atui kashikepeka kopecha hoyupu wa okai. The wild ducks are flying over the sea.
Chisei kashiketa paskuru at. There are some crows upon the house.

228.—Ko, koro; “if”, “when”, “whilst”.
The word ko is probably a corruption or contraction of the verb “koro”, “to possess”.
Arapa ko wen. It will be bad if you go.
Arapa koro hachiri. He tumbled as he went.

When the verb koro is used as an auxiliary to other verbs, it signifies that the action is still going on; thus:--
A-ki kor’an. It is being done.

229.—Kuni; “likely”, “probably”.
The word kuni seems to express “likelihood”, “probability”, and “purpose”; thus:--
Ek kuni aramu. He is likely to come (lit. it is to be considered [that] he will come).
Ku iku kuni tambako. The tobacco for me to smoke.
Ek kuni ku ye. I told him to come.

230.—Kuni, gusu; “in order that”, “in order to”, “so that”.
Nu kuni gusu ek. Come in order to hear.
A-ki kuni gusu ye. Command that it be done.
Iteki soine kuni gusu kara yan. Make it so that they do not get out.
Iteki a-en kik kuni gusu ye wa en kore. Please ask him not to strike me (lit. please speak to him that I be not struck).

231.—kushta; “beyond”, “yonder”, (but not far off). See No. 222.
To kushta. Beyond the lake (but near it).
Kushta an. It is yonder.

232.—Kusu or gusu; ne gusu; “because”, “as”, “to the effect that”, to”.
After a verb kusu or gusu, but after a noun ne gusu:--
A-hotuyekara gusu ek. He came because he was called.
Kuani Ainu ne gusu ku erampeutek. As I am an Ainu, I do not understand it.
Wakka atare gusu aye yakka etoranne. Though told to draw water, still he was idle. (Lit. Though it was said that water was to be drawn, he was idle at it.)
Ku etutkopak gusu, orota ku arapa. I shall go to bid him farewell.

233.—Newa; “and”. Newa…newa; “and”. Newa…kane; “both…and”.
Humirui newa kopecha an. There is a grouse and a wild-duck.
Topak newa, kunne newa. Both day and night.
Itunnap newa soyai kane shi no yai-sanniyop ne ruwe ne. Both ants and bees are very prudent creatures.

234.—Ne yakka; “even”, “and”. Ne yakka…ne yakka; “both…and”.
After nouns always ne yakka, but after verbs yakka.
In an affirmative sentence ne yakka…ne yakka, or yakka…yakka mean “both…and”; but in a negative “neither…nor”, and “whether…or”; thus:--
Kuani ne yakka tambe ki eashkai. Even I can do this.
Eani ne yakka kuani ne yakka. Both you and I.
Tambe ne yakka nei ambe neyakka shomo. Neither this nor that.
Apkash yakka, umma o yakka. Whether I walk or ride.

235.—Okake, okake an ko, okaketa; “after”, “afterwards”, “by and by”.
Arapa, okake rai. He went, afterwards he died.
Rai, okake an ko, tushiri otta a-omare. He died, afterwards he was buried.
Okaketa ku ek na. I will come by and by.

236.—Okari; “around”.
To okari; around the lake.
Kotan okari; around the village.

237.—Oro; “in”, “upon”.
Oro ahunge; put it in.
Aep oro omarep; a vessel to put food in.
Amip oro omare kuma; a pole to hang clothes upon.

238.—Orota, orun, otta; “to”, “into”, “to which”, “to this”, “in which”, “by”.
The word otta is a contraction of orota.
Puyara otta shirikush. To pass by a window.
Pet orota (otta) san. He has gone down to the river.
Shu orota (otta) wakka an. There is water in the pot.
Chisei orun ahun. He has gone into the house.
Orota (otta) ene itak. To which (to this) he spoke thus.
Ota-taiki otta okai shui. Holes in which sand-flies live.
Otta ahun ushike isam. There is no place in which to go.

The following peculiar use of otta, as expressing “purpose”, should be carefully noted:--
Amip a-satke otta a-iwange. It is used for drying clothes.
Chep a-satke otta neyakka a-iwange. It is also used for drying fish.

239.—Orowa; “and”, “then”. Orowa no; “from”, “by”, “after”.
Orowa ene itaki. And thus he spoke.
Ene itaki, orowa paye. They spoke so, then went away.
Ye orowa no kira. After he told us, he ran away.
Nishpa orowa no akik. He was struck by the master.

240.—Oshike, Oshiketa; “the inside”, “inside”.
Chip oshike. The inside of a boat.
Chisei oshiketa okai. They are inside the house.

241.—Pak no; “sufficient”, “enough”, “until” (the extreme limits).
Pak no ku e na. I have eaten enough.
Ek pak no ku tere. I will wait till he comes.
Atui pa pak no atui gesh pak no; moshiri pa pak no moshiri gesh pak no. From one end of the sea to the other; from one end of the world to the other. (A phrase meaning “the whole world over”.)

242.—Rata; “below”.
Kando rikta an, shiri rata an. Heaven is above and earth is below.

243.—Ri, rikta, rikpeka; “high”, “above”.
Ri, means “high”; rikpeka, “the place above”, and rikta, “at the place above”; thus:--
Chipak ri ne. The bird is high.
Paskuru rikpeka hoyopu. The crow flies in the heights above.
Rikta an. It is above.

244.—Sama, samaketa, samata; “beside”, “by the side of”, “before” (in the sight of ).
Pet sama, beside the river.
Apa samaketa okai ikushpe; the posts by the side of the doorway.
Kamui tek samata; before God. (Lit. by the side of the hand of God.)

245.—Shirikata; this word properly means “upon the earth”, but it is very often used for, “below” or “beneath”, instead of rata; thus:--
Kando rikta an, moshiri shirikata an. Heaven is above, the earth is beneath.

246.—Ta; “to”, “at”, “in”.
Mopet ta san. He is going to Mopet.
Chisei to okai; they are in the house.
Shine an ta; at one place.

247.—Tumugeta tumuta; “amongst”.
Chikuni tumugeta; amongst trees.
Mun tumuta; amongst the grass.

248.—Un; “in”, “to”, “towards”.
The postposition un is of very extensive use, and has a great variety of meanings. Its use as a locative particle should be particularly noted.
Chisei un; in the house.
Oya moshir’un guru; a foreigner.
Uni un ku arapa; I am going home.
Kim un; to the mountains.
Te un; here.
Kim un kamui ; the god of the mountains.
Eani un; you.
Rep un kamui; the god of the sea.
Kuani un; I.
Paro un guru ; a man of mouth (i.e. eloquent).

249.—Uturu, uturugeta, uturata; “between”, “among”.
Ikushpe uturugeta; between the posts.
Nupuri uturuta, among the mountains.

250.—Wa; “and”.
The present participle of an “to be”; used also as a copulative:--
Koro wa ek. Bring it, take and come. (Lit. possessing come.)
Arapa wa uk. Go and fetch it. (Lit. going, take it.)

251.—Wa no; we; “from”.
The word we is only heard in the following sentence Nak we ek? “Where have you come from?” But wano is very often used; thus:--
Sara wa no ku ek. I came from Sara.
Nupuri wa no sap. We came down from the mountains.

252.—Ya; “whether”, “or”.
Ek ya shomo ya? Will he come or not?
Ki ya shomo ya, ku erampeutek. I do not know whether he has done it or not.

253.—Yak, yak anak, yak’anakne, yakka, yakun; “if”, “though”, “in case”, “by”.
Arapa yak pirika, he may go. (Lit., it is good if he goes.)
Arapa yak anak ne, if upon his going, or, if when he goes.
Ki yak ka, though he does it.
Uwe-pekennu yak un, in the case of his making inquiry.
Tunashi no sara etaye yak nishpa ne rusui. By quickly drawing in his tail he thought to become rich.



In speaking the Ainu language, the following rules are to be observed:--

254.—The subject of the verb is always placed at the beginning of the sentence, the verb itself at the end, and the object immediately before the verb; thus:--
Ainu ek. An Ainu is coming.
Moyuk raige. He killed a badger.
Heikachi umma o. The lad is riding a horse.

255.—The genitive always precedes the word it defines; thus:--
Ku makiri; my knife.
Chikoro uni; our home.
Chiramantep maratto; a bear’s ear.
Seta nimaki; the dog’s teeth.

256.—Adjectives are used either attributively or predicatively.
(a.)—When used attributively, an adjective is placed before the noun it qualifies; thus:--
Atomte chisei; a beautiful house.
Wen guru; a bad person, a poor person.

(b.)—When an adjective is used predicatively, it is placed after the noun it qualifies; thus:--
Nonno eramasu ne. It is a pretty flower.
Seta nimaki tanne ne. The dog’s teeth are long.

257.—Very often, particularly when the word anakne is used, the noun is mentioned twice, once with and once without the adjective; thus:--
Toi anakne pirika toi ne. It is a good garden, or the garden is a good one. (Lit. as for the garden, it is a good one.)
Umma anakne nitan umma ne. It is a swift horse, or the horse is a swift one.

258.—The pronouns are very much used in speaking Ainu, and sometimes occur twice or even thrice in one short sentence; thus:--
Kuani Ainu ku ne. I am an Ainu.
Kuani ku arapa wa ku ye. I will go and tell him.
Aokai e meraige ta ? Are you cold?

259.—Prepositions are usually placed after the words they govern and are therefore, in this work, called postpositions; thus:--
Uni un arapa. He is going home.
Chisei orun ahun. To enter a house.
Kama otta wakka omare. Put some water in the kettle.
Endo kotan orowa no ek. He came from Tokyo.

(a).—Real exceptions to this rule will be found in the particles e and o. (See Nos. 196 and 206.)
(b).—apparent exceptions will often be heard in the words otta, “to”, and oro, “in”; thus:--
Otta ene itaki. To which he said.
Otta okai shui. Holes in which they dwell.
Oro omare. To bring in, or, to put in.

These exceptions are not real; for the subject to which these postpositions refer, though not expressed, is always understood. Otta should therefore, in such sentences as those give above, always be translated by some such phrase as—“in which”, “to which”, “to it”, “to that”, or “this”. Oro always means “in” or “upon”. (See also No. 208.)

260.—The adverb always precedes the verb:--
Tunashi no ye. Say it quickly.
Na a moire oman. Go more slowly.

261.—Conjunctions are placed at the end of the clause to which they belong; thus:--
Shiyeye an gusu, tane ku hoshipi. I am now returning because I am sick.
Nishpa ikashpaotte chiki, ku ki. I will do it if the master commands.

262.—A conjunctive clause ending in gusu may be placed at the end of a sentence; thus:--
Tane ku hoshipi, shiyeye an gusu ne na. I am now returning because I am sick.

263.—The common conjunction “and” is expressed by the particle wa; thus:--
Ek wa ibe. Come and eat. (See No. 250.)

264.—Interrogative adverbs are placed at the beginning, and interrogative particles at the end of a sentence; thus:--
Hembara pakno teda e-shiroma ruwe he an? How long shall you stay here?
Nep ye ya? What did he say?

265.—All dependent clauses and participial phrases precede the chief verb; thus:--
Orowa, niwatush ani pet otta san wa wakka ta. And taking the bucket, he went down to the river and fetched water.

266.—The following construction with the negative verb isam, “it is not”, should be carefully noted. It helps to form a phrase, of which the English equivalent is not negative but affirmative; thus:--
Ikka guru ikka wa isam. A thief stole it away.
Arapa wa isam. He is gone, also he is dead.
A-e wa isam. It is all eaten.

267.—As a rule, the Ainu are very fond of using the passive forms of verbs where one would expect to find the active voice, thus:--
Pet otta san wa chep anukara. Going down to the river he saw a fish. (Lit. going down to the river, a fish was seen.)
Umma a-o wa oman. He went on a horse. (Lit. he went, a horse being ridden.)
Chep asatke otta neyakka a-iwange. It is also used for drying fish. (Lit. it is also used for fish to be dried.)
(for the use of otta, See 238.)

267 (a).—The passive particle a is not, in every case, immediately prefixed to the verb to which it belongs; e.g.
A-wakka tare yakka kopan, He disliked even to draw water.
The a really belongs to tare; thus, Wakka atare yakka kopan, is quite as correct as, a-wakka tare yakka kopan, and either may be used.

In compound passive verbs, the particle a is placed in the middle; thus:--
Kashiobiuki, to save.
Kashi-a-obiuki, to be saved.

268.—A polite way of asking for things is with en kore; thus:--
Wakka en kore. Please give me some water.
Ye wa en kore. Please tell me.

269.—In prayer the following peculiar idiom is often heard.
Nekon ka newa……en kore wa un kore. Please give us. (Lit. please giving me give us.)

270.—The following tale of the “Man in the Moon”, with an Ainu explanation, is here given as a practical illustration of the foregoing grammar.


Otdeëta anakne ona itak unu itak shomo nu, a wakka tare yakka kopan, aine, kamui irushka gusu, chu-kamui samata a-ande, moshir’ ebita a-upakashinu gusu an gun’ne. Chup orush gun’ne. Tambe gusu shinrit itak wen yakka pirika yakka a-nup ne na. Tambe neyakka utar’ obitta nu yan.

271.—Itak pita katu.
Wakka a-tare gusu a-ye yakka etoranne. Orowa, inumbe notakup ari tata. Orowa, soineko apa samaketa okai ikushbe, nei-ambe neyakka, taugi taugi wa, “Ainu bata! ikushbe ne gusu shomo wakka ta ruwe okai”! Orowa, pishako niwatush ani wa pet otta san;--pet otta san ita shupun cheppo hemesu nukara, awa, otta ene itaki, “Ainu bata! shupun ne gusu, toi pone op, wen pone op, shomo wakka to ruwe okai”. Orowa shui, ichaniu chep nukara, “Toi mimi pene, wen mimi pene, Ainu bata ! shomo wakka ta ruwe okai”. Orowa, imakaketa san ko kamui chep nukara, awa, “Kamui chep kamui, iyangarapte iyangarapte”! Orowa, nani chep kamui orowa a-uk ruwe ne. Chep kamui orowa a-uk wa, nani chup otta a-ande ruwe ne. Tane wakka ta etoranne guru kamui irushka ko anakne ene akari tapa na.

272.—Translation of 270.—The Story of the Man in the Moon.

In ancient times there was a lad who would neither obey his father nor his mother, and who even disliked to fetch water; so, the gods being angry, they put him in the side of the moon as a warning to all people. This is the man in the moon. For this reason, let all the world understand that the words of parents, whether they be good or evil, must be obeyed.

273.—Translation of 271.—Explanation of the Tale.

Through the lad was ordered to draw water he was idle, and sat chopping the fireplace with an edged tool. As he went out, he beat the door-post, saying—“Ah me! You being a door-post, do not have to draw water!” Then, taking the laddle and the bucket, he went down to the river;--and, when he came to the river, he saw a little shupun fish coming up stream, to which he said, “Ah me! because you—you awfully bony creature—are a fish, you do not have to draw water!” Again, seeing a salmon-trout, he said, “Ah me! you soft, flabby creature, you do not have to draw water!” Then, descending thence, he saw an autumn salmon, to which he said—“How do you do, how do you do, Mr. Salmon”; and straightway he was seized by the salmon, and, for the instruction of all people, was placed in the moon. Thus do the angry gods to those who dislike to draw water.

274.—Remarks on and explanation of 270.

Chup, “a luminary”. Or’ush short for oro ush, (lit. “in”) almost equal to orota an, “to be in”; (see 61, 62). Guru, “person”. Orushpe, “ news”, “a tale”.

Otdeëta, “very anciently”. Anakne, a particle used to isolate or emphasize a word or phrase (see 210). Ona-unu, “father”-“mother”. Itak, “words”. Shomo nu, “not to hear” (see 147 a).
A, a passive particle; the a really belongs to tare, but sometimes this particle is taken away from its verb and placed before a noun, as here (see 267 a). Wakka, “water”. Tare, causative of ta, “to draw” (see 160 e). Yakka, “even” (see 253). Kopan, “to dislike”. Aine, “so” (see 209). Kamui, “the gods”, anything great or awful or good. Irushka, “to be angry”. Gusu, “because” (see 232). Chup- kamui, “the sun” or “moon”. Samata, “beside” (see 244). An, “to be”. Ande, “to put”, “to place” (see 159). A-ande, “to be placed”. Moshir; short for moshiri; the final i is dropped because of the following e. Moshiri, “the world”, “an island”; ebitta, “in the whole”, “the whole”. Moshir’ebitta, phrase meaning “the whole of mankind”. Upakashinu, “to instruct”, “to warn”. Gun’ne, short for guru ne (see 7). Tambe gusu, “therefore”. Shinrit, “roots”, “ancestors”. Wen, “bad”. Pirika, “good”. Yakka…yakka, “whether…or”. Anup, “a thing to be obeyed” or “heard” (see 37).
Ne, “to be”. Na, conclusive particle. Tambe, “this”. Neyakka, “also”, “even”. Utar’obitta, short for utara obitta, “all men”. Yan, imperative particle (see 143).

275.—Remarks on and explanations of 271.

Itak, “a word”, “a speech”; here, “the tale”. Pita, “to untie”, “to loosen”, “to explain”. Katu, “method”, “form” (see 42). A-tare, “to be caused to draw”. A-ye, “to be told”, “to be said”. Etoranne, transitive of toranne, “to be idle”; thus:--Wakka a-tare gusu a-ye yakka etoranne, though it was said that water was to be drawn, he was idle (he was idle at it). Note the passives (see 267). Orowa, “and”, “then”. Inumbe, the pieces of wood round a fire-place. Notakup, any “edged tool”. Ari, “with” (see 212). Tata, “to hack”. Soine, “to go out”. Ko, “when” (see 228). Apa, “the doorway”. Samaketa, “by the side of” (see 244). Okai, “to be at”. Ikushbe, “a post”. Nei-ambe, “that”. Taugi-taugi, “to beat”, “to knock”. Ainu bata, interj. “ah me”! Ne gusu, “because” (see 232). Ruwe okai, “are” (see 132 a). Okai, “to be at” or “in”. Pishako (Jap.), “a ladle”. Niwatush, “a bucket”. Ani, “with”, “taking” (see 212). Otta, “to” (see 238). Ita, “when” (see 172, 200). Shupun, name of a fresh-water fish. Cheppo-chep, “a fish”; po, a diminutive particle, cheppo, “a little fish”. Hemesu, “to go up”, to ascend”. Nukara, “to see”. Awa, “being” (see 213). Ene, “thus”. Toi…wen, “very bad”. Toi pone op, wen pone op, “very bad and bony” or “exceedingly bony”. Shui, “again”. Ichaniu chep, “a salmon-trout”. Mimi pene, “flabby-fleshed”. Imakaketa, “thence”. Kamui chep, “autumn salmon”. Iyangarapte, “how do you do”. Nani, “straightway”. Orowa, “by” (see 239). Tane, “now”. Akiri,--a, passive particle; kari, the verb kara turned into a substantive by the particle i (see 32).

276.—The following is a tale of two Foxes which may be found interesting to some:



Pan’ambe ne wa shi no e-pirika rusui; tambe gusu, sara turi wa Matomai ta eush ruwe ne. Aige, ene hawashi, “Kamui orowa no kamui-kuma an gusu, kosonde obitta satke chiki pirika na”, kamui-tono itak. Tambe, gusu, kosonde ne yakka pirika miambe ne yakka a-satke ruwe ne. Okake an koro, Pan’ambe sara etaye, ne a sarampe ne yakka pirika miambe ne yakka obitta Pan’ambe sara kotuk ine ariki. Chisei shik-no an pirika. Shi no nishpa ne ruwe ne. Orota, Pen’ambe san, “A-koro Pan’ambe; nekon a ika wa, nishpa e ne a?” sekoro itak.—“Ek wa ibe, a-epaskuma gusu ne na”, sekoro Pan’ambe itak. Aige, “Hoshiki no chi ki gusu ne ap; toi Pan’ambe, wen Pan’ambe! iyetushmak wa hawe an”, ari itak koro soine; pishta san, atui tomotuye sara turi Matomai ta arapare. “Kamui-kuma an na. Kosonde ne yakka pirika miambe ne yakka a-satke chiki pirika na” sekoro kamui-tono itak ruwe ne. Tambe gusu, kosonde ne yakka pirika miambe ne yakka obitta a-sange wa, kamui-kuma oro a-omare. Pen’ambe ne wa tunashi no sara etaye yak nishpa ne rusui ; tambe gusu, tunashi no etaye ruwe ne na. Ne a kamui-kuma moimoige awa, ene hawashi : “Teeda neyakka ene shiri ki; kamui-kuma an, tambe gusu kosonde ne yakka usa-pirika miambe a-satke ruwe ne,--awa,--ikka-guru kamui-kuma etaye wa isam. Nishpa obitta shomo ki ruwe ne,--awa,--tane shui an kuma kosonde ne yakka omare, pirika miambe ne yakka a-omare ruwe ne,--awa,--ikka-guru ne kotom’an ruwe ne. Kamui-kuma tunash no tuye yan”. Tambe gusu tono utara emushi etaye; kamui-kuma a-tuye; ne a kosonde ne yakka pirika miambe ne yakka obitta a-uk ruwe ne na. Pen’ambe sara emko patek an ne ! etaye ruwe ne; orowa, nep ka isam; orowa, shi no wen guru ne ruwe ne. Orowa Pan’ambe patek shi no e-pirika koro an ruwe ne. Pan’ambe upaskuma ambe Pan’ambe nu chiki, ibe ne yakka eashkai, nishpa ne yakka ne noine ambe an; koroka, upaskuma nu kopan. Tambe gusu wen guru ne ruwe ne.




Pan’ambe, having a great desire to become rich, stretched his tail across to the town of Matsumai. When the Lord of Matsumai saw the tail, he said, “This is a pole sent from the gods. Hang all my clothes upon it to air”. So all the short-sleeved garments and good clothing were hung out. After a time, Pan’ambe drew back his tail, and all the soft silky garments and good clothing adhering to it came also; so that he gained a whole houseful of things, and became very rich. Pen’ambe, hearing of his good fortune, called upon him and said, “My dear Pan’ambe, what have you done, that you have become so rich”? Pan’ambe replied, “Come and take some refreshment, and I will tell you”. When he had heard all, Pen’ambe withdrawing said: “This is the very thing we ourselves had intended to do, and you,--you abominable Pan’ambe—you disgusting Pan’ambe, have forestalled us”. So saying, he went down to the seashore and stretched his tail across the sea to Matsumai. When the Lord of Matsumai saw it, he said, “Here is a pole sent by the gods. Hang out all my best clothes to air”. So the clothes were hung upon it. But, Pen’ambe being in a great hurry to become rich, began to withdraw his tail too quickly. The Lord of Matsumai, seeing the pole move, said: “Even thus it happened once before. There came a pole from the gods, upon which we hung our clothes out to air; but a thief stole the pole away, and we all became poor. Now again a pole has come and we have hung our clothes upon it, but look! there appears to be a thief about; be quick, and cut the gods’ pole in two”. So the officers drew their swords and cut the pole, therby saving all the clothes. Pen’ambe was left with but half a tail! so he drew it in, but had obtained nothing, and was in a very sorry plight. Now, if Pen’ambe had only listened to what Pan’ambe had said to him, he might have been a rich person and able to live; but he did not like to be advised, so he became a very poor man.



A 112(a), 134, 187-190, 267(a)
Abstract nouns 3-34
Accent 6
Adjectives 54-80
Adverbial form of numerals 103
Adverbs 162-182
Adverbs of affirmation 177
Adverbs of degree 174
Adverbs of interrogation 176, 180
Adverbs of manner 175
Adverbs of negation 178
Adverbs of place 173
Adverbs of time 172, 137
Aeramu shinne 133(d)
Affirmation 177
Aige 208
Aine 209
Akkari 71 (a,b,c,d,e)
Ambe 31, 44
An 64, 138
Anak, anakne 210
Ani 212
Animal, how counted 91
Animal, sex, how expressed 17
An ko 211
Anun 112 (a)
Article 21, 22, 87
Auxiliaries 132, 133
Cases of nouns 29
Cases of pronouns 117-124
Chiki 214
Choropok 215
Classifiers 92
Comparison of adjectives 69-71
Compound nouns 35-44
Compound adjectives 56, 68
Concession, how expressed 146
Condition, how expressed 146
Consonants 3
Degree, adverbs of 174
Demonstrative adjectives 72-74, 112, 113, 114
Desire, how expressd 144
Dialect 5
Diversity, how expressed 23
Double consonants 4
Doubt, how expressed 149
Dropping of vowels 8
E 75, 85 (b), 192-196
Eashka 171 (b)
Eitasa 171 (c)
Ekopash 215 (a)
Ellipsis 8, 8 (a)
Ene 216
Enka 217
Four quarters of compass 53
Future tense 135, 142
Gender of nouns 15-18
Gods, names of 46
Half, different words for 107 (e)
Heikachi 7, 19, 25, 26
Hekota 218
Hemhem 219
Hene 220
Hike 221
Hybrid compounds 14
Hypothesis, how expressed 146
I 10, 32, 33, 197, 200
Ikashima 85 (a)
Ikushta 222
Imakake 223
Indefinite pronouns 130
Ine 224
Interrogations 130, 176, 180-184
Interjections 183, 184
Intransitive verbs, how made transitive 159-162
Iyotta 78
Ka 225, 226
Kamui 46, 95
Kane 167, 170
Kara 168
Kara, verbs in 155
Kara, paradigm of 151-154
Kashi 227
Kasu no 171 (f)
Katu 42, 43
Kik, paradigm of 140-150
Ko 228
Kor’an 132 (c)
Koro 65, 125-127, 155, 167, 168, 171
Kuni 230
Kunne 98
Kushta 231
Kusu 232
Letter-changes 2, 7, 9
Masculine and feminine words 16
Masculine of human beings, how expressed 18
Mashki’no 171 (d)
Mood 131
Mood imperative 143
Mood potential 145
Months 52
Na 136
Naa 78, 171 (e)
Nangoro 136
Ne 56, 57
Negatives 147, 148, 178, 179
Newa 233
Ne-yakka 234
Nisa 133 (a)
Niu 89, 22
No 76, 169
Noun 15-53
Noun, repetition of 90-99
Noun, number of 20-28
Nu 58
Numerals 91-107
O 59, 201-204
Oara 166
Objective case 124
Objective case of pronouns 119, 120
Okake 235
Okari 235
Okere 133 (b)
Okkaibo 19
Ordinal form of numerals 100, 102
Oro 237
Orota 238
Orowa 239
Oshike 240
Pairs of articles, how expressed 105
Pakno 241
Participles 150
Passive verbs 39, 267
Pe, p 38-40, 78-80, 90
Phonetic system 1-11
Pish 91, 92
Place, adverbs of 173
Place-names 49
Plurality, how expressed 23, 27, 105
Postpositions 207-253
Prepositions 196-201
Pronouns 108-130
Pronouns of first person 109, 119
Pronouns of second person 110, 111, 120, 122
Pronouns of third person 112-114, 125
Pronouns long and short 118
Pronouns possessive 120-127
Pronouns relative 128
Pronouns reflexive 115, 116
Proper nouns 45, 50
Radical form of numerals 21, 22, 82, 86, 87, 23
Rata 242
Reduplication 10, 11
Reflexive pronouns 115, 116
Ri 243
Ruwe ne 132 (a), 136
Sak 66, 67
Sama 244
Score 83, 84
Seasons 51
Shine 21, 22, 87
Shirikata 245
Shiri ne 132 (b)
Singular number, how expressed 21, 72, 73, 106
Substantive form of numerals 88-99
Ta 246, 173
Tapan 132 (d)
Tara 77
Tek 60
Tense, present 140
Tense, past 141
Tense, future 142
Time, adverbs of 172
Than, comparative with 71
To 96, 97
Toiko 166
Tokap 97
Tumugeta 247
U 205, 206
Uko 165
Un 68, 248
Ush 61, 63
Utari 23-25, 27
Uturu 249
Uwe 165
Verbs 131-168
Verbs, paradigms of 140-154
Verbs, list of 157
Verbs, special plural forms of 156
Verbs, transitive and causative 158-162
Wa 250
Wa no 251
We 251
Words borrowed from Japanese 12, 13
Ya 252
Yak 253

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