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Chess is a board game played by two people. The objective is to checkmate1 the opposition. Chess is played on a board that is split up into 64 squares where each square alternates from black to white. Each player has 16 pieces:

  • 8 Pawns
  • 2 Bishops
  • 2 Knights
  • 2 Rooks or 2 Castles
  • 2
  • 1 Queen
  • 1 King


Chess is believed to have come from India where its early form was known as chaturanga which translates as "four divisions of the mitlitary". These four divisions were infantry, cavalry, elephants and chariots which are represented as prawn, bishop, knight and castle. Through time, chess travelled through Europe where many of the rules changed to what we know today.


The pawn is known, to some people, as being weak, however, it can offer great help during a game. There are 16 pawns on a chess board and it can only move one step forward per move except its first move, where it can move two spaces, this special move is known as en passant. The pawn can move diagonaly forward to take out a piece. In India, the pawn would be known as the footsoilder.


There are 4 bishops alltogether on a chess board and it can only move diagonaly. They can be very helpful in the opening game to support a pawn. It can be useful to take out a castle. In India, the bishop would be known as the elephant.


There are 4 knights on a chess board and they move in a very special way. A knight can move in a L shape, basically, either move one step then turn 90 degrees and move two steps or move two steps then turn 90 degrees and move one step. The useful thing about a knight is that it can not be blocked by another piece. It is really helpful when checking3 the opposition's king when there is another piece in the firing line.4 In India, the knight would be known as the horse.

Rook or Castle

There are 4 castles on a chess board and it moves forwards and backwards and sideways. As the title says, it has two names, a rook or a castle. Like a bishop can have use when taking out a castle, a castle can have use when taking out a bishop. A castle is next in rank from the queen. The castle can be used very easily by anyone. In India, the castle would be known as the chariot.

The Queen

There are two queens on a chess board and it is the most powerful piece in the game. Most players would try and keep the queen for as long as possible. It can move forwards and backwards, sideways and diagonaly. The queen is the best piece to get the king in checkmate but it is best used with another piece. In India, the queen would be known as the minister.

The King

There are two kings on a chess board and it is the most important piece in the game. During the game, you would want to keep your king safe from any danger at all times. The king moves one space at a time and can move forwards, backwards, sideways and diagonaly. In India, the king would be known as the king.

Special Moves

There are a few special moves that can be used in the game but only in special circumstances.

En Passant

As mentioned above, en passant is when the pawn moves forward two spaces but it can only do this on its first move. A very special move can happen when a pawn does en passant. If someones pawn is one row ahead of their half of the board and then the opposition moves its pawn5 forward two spaces which would then pass the person's pawn that is next to it, the person can then take out the opposition's pawn on that move but only on that move. The person's pawn still would have to move diagonaly.


A promotion in chess is when a pawn advances its rank by turning into another piece. Usually someone would turn it into a queen because a queen is the most powerful piece but the pawn can turn into any piece apart from the king. A promotion only occurs when a pawn makes its way to the end of the chess board.


Castling is when the king and a castle come together and switch places all in one move. This can only happen when either the king or the castle haven't moved. The king can't do this move to get out of check or it can't do this move to go into check.

The Opening Game

The opening part of the game is the very start of the game. It can be a very overwhelming stage because there are so many moves. However, the first move would use either a pawn or a knight because the other pieces are trapped by the pawns. The opening is very important for the middle part of the game because the middle game relies on the opening to start of the strategy.

The Middle Game

The middle game is when every piece is being used and it is when most of the battles happen. The middle game needs a lot of strategy.

The End Game

The end game is when the chess board is nearly empty and each player has a few pieces. In the end game, each player can check each other easily. This part of the game can be fun but it can be very dangerous because it is very easy to lose a piece.

1 To take out the king.2It can be called both3 Making the opposition's king having to move.4 The piece would be taken out.5 The collumn next to the person's pawn

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