Special Character Codes in GuideML (GB's copy)

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If you want to put special characters into your GuideML articles, then there are two ways to do it:

  • Use a 'named entity', such as £

  • Use the <ENTITY> tag, such as <ENTITY TYPE="#163"/>

Do not use a 'numbered entity', such as &#163; - this will not work on all platforms.

We recommend the first one, as it is slightly clearer to those reading your GuideML. If you want to include special characters in article subjects, then you must use the first type of entity, as only this type will work.

The following tables show named entities and <ENTITY> tags, and contain all the characters from the ISO 8859-1 standard.

Please note that most browsers can't display all these characters (though one day one assumes they will). Some are better than others - Internet Explorer 5 displays more than Netscape 4.7, for example - so if a character doesn't appear below in your browser, then it won't show up properly for you even if you use the right code, but it might work for others. Also, some browsers will display correctly when the <ENTITY> tag is used, but not when the named entity is used. If in doubt, use the <ENTITY> tag.

Some Macintosh keyboards don't have the # symbol on them, but you can type it by pressing Option and 3.

Markup Entities

Named EntityENTITY TagCharacterDescription
&quot;<ENTITY TYPE="#34"/>"Quotation mark
&amp;<ENTITY TYPE="#38"/>&Ampersand
&lt;<ENTITY TYPE="#60"/><Less-than sign
&gt;<ENTITY TYPE="#62"/>>Greater-than sign

Punctuation and General Symbols

Named EntityENTITY TagCharacterDescription
&nbsp;<ENTITY TYPE="#160"/> Non-breakable space
&iexcl;<ENTITY TYPE="#161"/>¡Inverted exclamation mark
&cent;<ENTITY TYPE="#162"/>¢Cent sign
&pound;<ENTITY TYPE="#163"/>£Pound sterling sign
&curren;<ENTITY TYPE="#164"/>¤General currency sign
&yen;<ENTITY TYPE="#165"/>¥Yen sign
&brvbar;<ENTITY TYPE="#166"/>¦Broken (vertical) bar
&sect;<ENTITY TYPE="#167"/>§Section sign
&uml;<ENTITY TYPE="#168"/>¨Umlaut (dieresis)
&copy;<ENTITY TYPE="#169"/>©Copyright sign
&ordf;<ENTITY TYPE="#170"/>ªOrdinal indicator, feminine
&laquo;<ENTITY TYPE="#171"/>«Angle quotation mark, left
&shy;<ENTITY TYPE="#173"/>­Soft hyphen
&reg;<ENTITY TYPE="#174"/>®Registered sign
&macr;<ENTITY TYPE="#175"/>¯Macron
&deg;<ENTITY TYPE="#176"/>°Degree sign
&sup2;<ENTITY TYPE="#178"/>²Superscript two
&sup3;<ENTITY TYPE="#179"/>³Superscript three
&acute;<ENTITY TYPE="#180"/>´Acute accent
&micro;<ENTITY TYPE="#181"/>µMicro sign
&para;<ENTITY TYPE="#182"/>Pilcrow (paragraph sign)
&middot;<ENTITY TYPE="#183"/>·Middle dot
&cedil;<ENTITY TYPE="#184"/>¸Cedilla
&sup1;<ENTITY TYPE="#185"/>¹Superscript one
&ordm;<ENTITY TYPE="#186"/>ºOrdinal indicator, masculine
&raquo;<ENTITY TYPE="#187"/>»Angle quotation mark, right
&iquest;<ENTITY TYPE="#191"/>¿Inverted question mark
&circ;<ENTITY TYPE="#710"/>ˆModifier letter circumflex accent
&tilde;<ENTITY TYPE="#732"/>˜Small tilde
&bull;<ENTITY TYPE="#8226"/>Bullet (small black circle)
&hellip;<ENTITY TYPE="#8230"/>Horizontal ellipsis
&ensp;<ENTITY TYPE="#8194"/>En space
&emsp;<ENTITY TYPE="#8195"/>Em space
&thinsp;<ENTITY TYPE="#8201"/>Thin space
&zwnj;<ENTITY TYPE="#8204"/>Zero width non-joiner
&zwj;<ENTITY TYPE="#8205"/>Zero width joiner
&lrm;<ENTITY TYPE="#8206"/>Left-to-right mark
&rlm;<ENTITY TYPE="#8207"/>Right-to-left mark
&ndash;<ENTITY TYPE="#8211"/>En dash
&mdash;<ENTITY TYPE="#8212"/>Em dash
&lsquo;<ENTITY TYPE="#8216"/>Left single quotation mark
&rsquo;<ENTITY TYPE="#8217"/>Right single quotation mark
&sbquo;<ENTITY TYPE="#8218"/>Single low-9 quotation mark
&ldquo;<ENTITY TYPE="#8220"/>Left double quotation mark
&rdquo;<ENTITY TYPE="#8221"/>Right double quotation mark
&bdquo;<ENTITY TYPE="#8222"/>Double low-9 quotation mark
&dagger;<ENTITY TYPE="#8224"/>Dagger
&Dagger;<ENTITY TYPE="#8225"/>Double dagger
&permil;<ENTITY TYPE="#8240"/>Per mille sign
<ENTITY TYPE="euro"/><ENTITY TYPE="#8364"/>
Euro sign

Letters and Related Characters

Accented Letters

Named EntityENTITY TagCharacterDescription
&Agrave;<ENTITY TYPE="#192"/>ÀCapital A, grave accent
&Aacute;<ENTITY TYPE="#193"/>ÁCapital A, acute accent
&Acirc;<ENTITY TYPE="#194"/>ÂCapital A, circumflex accent
&Atilde;<ENTITY TYPE="#195"/>ÃCapital A, tilde
&Auml;<ENTITY TYPE="#196"/>ÄCapital A, dieresis or umlaut mark
&Aring;<ENTITY TYPE="#197"/>ÅCapital A, ring
&AElig;<ENTITY TYPE="#198"/>ÆCapital AE diphthong (ligature)
&Ccedil;<ENTITY TYPE="#199"/>ÇCapital C, cedilla
&Egrave;<ENTITY TYPE="#200"/>ÈCapital E, grave accent
&Eacute;<ENTITY TYPE="#201"/>ÉCapital E, acute accent
&Ecirc;<ENTITY TYPE="#202"/>ÊCapital E, circumflex accent
&Euml;<ENTITY TYPE="#203"/>ËCapital E, dieresis or umlaut mark
&Igrave;<ENTITY TYPE="#204"/>ÌCapital I, grave accent
&Iacute;<ENTITY TYPE="#205"/>ÍCapital I, acute accent
&Icirc;<ENTITY TYPE="#206"/>ÎCapital I, circumflex accent
&Iuml;<ENTITY TYPE="#207"/>ÏCapital I, dieresis or umlaut mark
&ETH;<ENTITY TYPE="#208"/>ÐCapital Eth, Icelandic
&Ntilde;<ENTITY TYPE="#209"/>ÑCapital N, tilde
&Ograve;<ENTITY TYPE="#210"/>ÒCapital O, grave accent
&Oacute;<ENTITY TYPE="#211"/>ÓCapital O, acute accent
&Ocirc;<ENTITY TYPE="#212"/>ÔCapital O, circumflex accent
&Otilde;<ENTITY TYPE="#213"/>ÕCapital O, tilde
&Ouml;<ENTITY TYPE="#214"/>ÖCapital O, dieresis or umlaut mark
&times;<ENTITY TYPE="#215"/>×Multiply sign
&Oslash;<ENTITY TYPE="#216"/>ØCapital O, slash
&Ugrave;<ENTITY TYPE="#217"/>ÙCapital U, grave accent
&Uacute;<ENTITY TYPE="#218"/>ÚCapital U, acute accent
&Ucirc;<ENTITY TYPE="#219"/>ÛCapital U, circumflex accent
&Uuml;<ENTITY TYPE="#220"/>ÜCapital U, dieresis or umlaut mark
&Yacute;<ENTITY TYPE="#221"/>ÝCapital Y, acute accent
&THORN;<ENTITY TYPE="#222"/>ÞCapital THORN, Icelandic
&szlig;<ENTITY TYPE="#223"/>ßLower case sharp s, German (sz ligature)
&agrave;<ENTITY TYPE="#224"/>àLower case a, grave accent
&aacute;<ENTITY TYPE="#225"/>áLower case a, acute accent
&acirc;<ENTITY TYPE="#226"/>âLower case a, circumflex accent
&atilde;<ENTITY TYPE="#227"/>ãLower case a, tilde
&auml;<ENTITY TYPE="#228"/>äLower case a, dieresis or umlaut mark
&aring;<ENTITY TYPE="#229"/>åLower case a, ring
&aelig;<ENTITY TYPE="#230"/>æLower case ae diphthong (ligature)
&ccedil;<ENTITY TYPE="#231"/>çLower case c, cedilla
&egrave;<ENTITY TYPE="#232"/>èLower case e, grave accent
&eacute;<ENTITY TYPE="#233"/>éLower case e, acute accent
&ecirc;<ENTITY TYPE="#234"/>êLower case e, circumflex accent
&euml;<ENTITY TYPE="#235"/>ëLower case e, dieresis or umlaut mark
&igrave;<ENTITY TYPE="#236"/>ìLower case i, grave accent
&iacute;<ENTITY TYPE="#237"/>íLower case i, acute accent
&icirc;<ENTITY TYPE="#238"/>îLower case i, circumflex accent
&iuml;<ENTITY TYPE="#239"/>ïLower case i, dieresis or umlaut mark
&eth;<ENTITY TYPE="#240"/>ðLower case eth, Icelandic
&ntilde;<ENTITY TYPE="#241"/>ñLower case n, tilde
&ograve;<ENTITY TYPE="#242"/>òLower case o, grave accent
&oacute;<ENTITY TYPE="#243"/>óLower case o, acute accent
&ocirc;<ENTITY TYPE="#244"/>ôLower case o, circumflex accent
&otilde;<ENTITY TYPE="#245"/>õLower case o, tilde
&ouml;<ENTITY TYPE="#246"/>öLower case o, dieresis or umlaut mark
&divide;<ENTITY TYPE="#247"/>÷Divide sign
&oslash;<ENTITY TYPE="#248"/>øLower case o, slash
&ugrave;<ENTITY TYPE="#249"/>ùLower case u, grave accent
&uacute;<ENTITY TYPE="#250"/>úLower case u, acute accent
&ucirc;<ENTITY TYPE="#251"/>ûLower case u, circumflex accent
&uuml;<ENTITY TYPE="#252"/>üLower case u, dieresis or umlaut mark
&yacute;<ENTITY TYPE="#253"/>ýLower case y, acute accent
&thorn;<ENTITY TYPE="#254"/>þLower case thorn, Icelandic
&yuml;<ENTITY TYPE="#255"/>ÿLower case y, dieresis or umlaut mark

Ligatures

Named EntityENTITY TagCharacterDescription
&OElig;<ENTITY TYPE="#338"/>ŒLatin capital ligature oe
&oelig;<ENTITY TYPE="#339"/>œLatin lower case ligature oe
&Scaron;<ENTITY TYPE="#352"/>ŠLatin capital letter s with caron
&scaron;<ENTITY TYPE="#353"/>šLatin lower case letter s with caron
&Yuml;<ENTITY TYPE="#376"/>ŸLatin capital letter y with diaeresis

Greek Characters

Named EntityENTITY TagCharacterDescription
&Alpha;<ENTITY TYPE="#913"/>ΑGreek capital letter alpha
&Beta;<ENTITY TYPE="#914"/>ΒGreek capital letter beta
&Gamma;<ENTITY TYPE="#915"/>ΓGreek capital letter gamma
&Delta;<ENTITY TYPE="#916"/>ΔGreek capital letter delta
&Epsilon;<ENTITY TYPE="#917"/>ΕGreek capital letter epsilon
&Zeta;<ENTITY TYPE="#918"/>ΖGreek capital letter zeta
&Eta;<ENTITY TYPE="#919"/>ΗGreek capital letter eta
&Theta;<ENTITY TYPE="#920"/>ΘGreek capital letter theta
&Iota;<ENTITY TYPE="#921"/>ΙGreek capital letter iota
&Kappa;<ENTITY TYPE="#922"/>ΚGreek capital letter kappa
&Lambda;<ENTITY TYPE="#923"/>ΛGreek capital letter lambda
&Mu;<ENTITY TYPE="#924"/>ΜGreek capital letter mu
&Nu;<ENTITY TYPE="#925"/>ΝGreek capital letter nu
&Xi;<ENTITY TYPE="#926"/>ΞGreek capital letter xi
&Omicron;<ENTITY TYPE="#927"/>ΟGreek capital letter omicron
&Pi;<ENTITY TYPE="#928"/>ΠGreek capital letter pi
&Rho;<ENTITY TYPE="#929"/>ΡGreek capital letter rho
&Sigma;<ENTITY TYPE="#931"/>ΣGreek capital letter sigma
&Tau;<ENTITY TYPE="#932"/>ΤGreek capital letter tau
&Upsilon;<ENTITY TYPE="#933"/>ΥGreek capital letter upsilon
&Phi;<ENTITY TYPE="#934"/>ΦGreek capital letter phi
&Chi;<ENTITY TYPE="#935"/>ΧGreek capital letter chi
&Psi;<ENTITY TYPE="#936"/>ΨGreek capital letter psi
&Omega;<ENTITY TYPE="#937"/>ΩGreek capital letter omega
&alpha;<ENTITY TYPE="#945"/>αGreek small letter alpha
&beta;<ENTITY TYPE="#946"/>βGreek small letter beta
&gamma;<ENTITY TYPE="#947"/>γGreek small letter gamma
&delta;<ENTITY TYPE="#948"/>δGreek small letter delta
&epsilon;<ENTITY TYPE="#949"/>εGreek small letter epsilon
&zeta;<ENTITY TYPE="#950"/>ζGreek small letter zeta
&eta;<ENTITY TYPE="#951"/>ηGreek small letter eta
&theta;<ENTITY TYPE="#952"/>θGreek small letter theta
&iota;<ENTITY TYPE="#953"/>ιGreek small letter iota
&kappa;<ENTITY TYPE="#954"/>κGreek small letter kappa
&lambda;<ENTITY TYPE="#955"/>λGreek small letter lambda
&mu;<ENTITY TYPE="#956"/>μGreek small letter mu
&nu;<ENTITY TYPE="#957"/>νGreek small letter nu
&xi;<ENTITY TYPE="#958"/>ξGreek small letter xi
&omicron;<ENTITY TYPE="#959"/>οGreek small letter omicron
&pi;<ENTITY TYPE="#960"/>πGreek small letter pi
&rho;<ENTITY TYPE="#961"/>ρGreek small letter rho
&sigmaf;<ENTITY TYPE="#962"/>ςGreek small letter final sigma
&sigma;<ENTITY TYPE="#963"/>σGreek small letter sigma
&tau;<ENTITY TYPE="#964"/>τGreek small letter tau
&upsilon;<ENTITY TYPE="#965"/>υGreek small letter upsilon
&phi;<ENTITY TYPE="#966"/>φGreek small letter phi
&chi;<ENTITY TYPE="#967"/>χGreek small letter chi
&psi;<ENTITY TYPE="#968"/>ψGreek small letter psi
&omega;<ENTITY TYPE="#969"/>ωGreek small letter omega
&thetasym;<ENTITY TYPE="#977"/>ϑGreek small letter theta symbol
&upsih;<ENTITY TYPE="#978"/>ϒGreek upsilon with hook symbol
&piv;<ENTITY TYPE="#982"/>ϖGreek pi symbol

Mathematical symbols

General Mathematical Symbols

Named EntityENTITY TagCharacterDescription
&not;<ENTITY TYPE="#172"/>¬Not sign
&plusmn;<ENTITY TYPE="#177"/>±Plus-or-minus sign
&frac14;<ENTITY TYPE="#188"/>¼Fraction one-quarter
&frac12;<ENTITY TYPE="#189"/>½Fraction one-half
&frac34;<ENTITY TYPE="#190"/>¾Fraction three-quarters
&fnof;<ENTITY TYPE="#402"/>ƒLatin small f with hook (function, florin)
&prime;<ENTITY TYPE="#8242"/>Prime (minutes, feet)
&Prime;<ENTITY TYPE="#8243"/>Double prime (seconds, inches)
&oline;<ENTITY TYPE="#8254"/>Overline
&frasl;<ENTITY TYPE="#8260"/>Fraction slash

Letter-like Symbols

Named EntityENTITY TagCharacterDescription
&fnof;<ENTITY TYPE="#402"/>ƒLatin small f with hook (function, florin)
&weierp;<ENTITY TYPE="#8472"/>Script capital P (power set, Weierstrass p)
&image;<ENTITY TYPE="#8465"/>Blackletter capital I (imaginary part)
&real;<ENTITY TYPE="#8476"/>Blackletter capital R (real part)
&trade;<ENTITY TYPE="#8482"/>Trade mark sign
&alefsym;<ENTITY TYPE="#8501"/>Aleph symbol (first transfinite cardinal)

Arrows

Named EntityENTITY TagCharacterDescription
&larr;<ENTITY TYPE="#8592"/>Left arrow
&uarr;<ENTITY TYPE="#8593"/>Up arrow
&rarr;<ENTITY TYPE="#8594"/>Right arrow
&darr;<ENTITY TYPE="#8595"/>Down arrow
&harr;<ENTITY TYPE="#8596"/>Left/right arrow
&crarr;<ENTITY TYPE="#8629"/>Down arrow with corner left (carriage return)
&lArr;<ENTITY TYPE="#8656"/>Left double arrow (is implied by)
&uArr;<ENTITY TYPE="#8657"/>Up double arrow
&rArr;<ENTITY TYPE="#8658"/>Right double arrow (implies)
&dArr;<ENTITY TYPE="#8659"/>Down double arrow
&hArr;<ENTITY TYPE="#8660"/>Left/right double arrow

Mathematical Operators

Named EntityENTITY TagCharacterDescription
&forall;<ENTITY TYPE="#8704"/>For all
&part;<ENTITY TYPE="#8706"/>Partial differential
&exist;<ENTITY TYPE="#8707"/>There exists
&empty;<ENTITY TYPE="#8709"/>Empty set (null set, diameter)
&nabla;<ENTITY TYPE="#8711"/>Nabla (backward difference)
&isin;<ENTITY TYPE="#8712"/>Element of
&notin;<ENTITY TYPE="#8713"/>Not an element of
&ni;<ENTITY TYPE="#8715"/>Contains as member
&prod;<ENTITY TYPE="#8719"/>N-ary product (product sign)
&sum;<ENTITY TYPE="#8721"/>N-ary sumation
&minus;<ENTITY TYPE="#8722"/>Minus sign
&lowast;<ENTITY TYPE="#8727"/>Asterisk operator
&radic;<ENTITY TYPE="#8730"/>Square root (radical sign)
&prop;<ENTITY TYPE="#8733"/>Proportional to
&infin;<ENTITY TYPE="#8734"/>Infinity
&ang;<ENTITY TYPE="#8736"/>Angle
&and;<ENTITY TYPE="#8743"/>Logical and (wedge)
&or;<ENTITY TYPE="#8744"/>Logical or (vee)
&cap;<ENTITY TYPE="#8745"/>Intersection (cap)
&cup;<ENTITY TYPE="#8746"/>Union (cup)
&int;<ENTITY TYPE="#8747"/>Integral
&there4;<ENTITY TYPE="#8756"/>Therefore
&sim;<ENTITY TYPE="#8764"/>Tilde operator (varies with, similar to)
&cong;<ENTITY TYPE="#8773"/>Approximately equal to
&asymp;<ENTITY TYPE="#8776"/>Almost equal to (asymptotic to)
&ne;<ENTITY TYPE="#8800"/>Not equal to
&equiv;<ENTITY TYPE="#8801"/>Identical to
&le;<ENTITY TYPE="#8804"/>Less-than or equal to
&ge;<ENTITY TYPE="#8805"/>Greater-than or equal to
&sub;<ENTITY TYPE="#8834"/>Subset of
&sup;<ENTITY TYPE="#8835"/>Superset of
&nsub;<ENTITY TYPE="#8836"/>Not a subset of
&sube;<ENTITY TYPE="#8838"/>Subset of or equal to
&supe;<ENTITY TYPE="#8839"/>Superset of or equal to
&oplus;<ENTITY TYPE="#8853"/>Circled plus (direct sum)
&otimes;<ENTITY TYPE="#8855"/>Circled times (vector product)
&perp;<ENTITY TYPE="#8869"/>Up tack (orthogonal to, perpendicular)
&sdot;<ENTITY TYPE="#8901"/>Dot operator

Miscellaneous Technical Symbols

Named EntityENTITY TagCharacterDescription
&lceil;<ENTITY TYPE="#8968"/>Left ceiling
&rceil;<ENTITY TYPE="#8969"/>Right ceiling
&lfloor;<ENTITY TYPE="#8970"/>Left floor
&rfloor;<ENTITY TYPE="#8971"/>Right floor
&lang;<ENTITY TYPE="#9001"/>Left-pointing angle bracket
&rang;<ENTITY TYPE="#9002"/>Right-pointing angle bracket
&loz;<ENTITY TYPE="#9674"/>Lozenge

Miscellaneous Symbols

Named EntityENTITY TagCharacterDescription
&spades;<ENTITY TYPE="#9824"/>Black spade suit
&clubs;<ENTITY TYPE="#9827"/>Black club suit
&hearts;<ENTITY TYPE="#9829"/>Black heart suit
&diams;<ENTITY TYPE="#9830"/>Black diamond suit

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