The Portuguese Monarchy - Part 3.

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The rule of Portugal by the (LINK)Spanish Kings of the House of Hapsburg is known as the Sixty years Captivity.

King Filipe I (1581 - 1598)

Philip II of Spain - The Prudent

Born in 1527, he was the son of the Emperor Charles V (Carlos I of Castile) and Isabel of Portugal, the daughter of Manuel I.

His first marriage was with Maria of Portugal, the daughter of João III, on 10th October 1543. Maria died in childbirth, giving light of day to Carlos (1545-1568).

In 1554, he married Mary Tudor of England. Mary died childless in 1558.

Filipe believed that his son, Carlos, was conspiring against him, and had him imprisoned. Carlos died shortly after.

He became King of Spain on the abdication of his father in 1556.

Filipe's third marriage was with Princess Elisabeth, daughter of Henri II of France, who in fact had first been promised to his son, Don Carlos. Elisabeth (1545-1568), provided him with two daughters, but no son.

Filipe was declared king of Portugal by the majority of the five governors appointed by the Cardinal-king Henrique on 17th August, 1580. He defeated King Antonio I in the Battle of Alcantara on the 25th August, 1580, whereupon there was little resistance due to the superiority of the Spanish forces. He was acclaimed king at the council of Tomar in April, 1581, which had been called under military occupation.

On the 29th June, 1581, he entered Lisbon in procession.

His son Filipe, by his fourth wife, Ana of Austria, was declared heir of Portugal in 1583.

In 1588, one of the muster points for the Spanish Armada was Lisbon. On the failure of this enterprise he was taken ill, and during the next ten years never fully recovered.

The reign of King Filipe I in Portugal was firstly by an intermediary, his brother-in-law, Cardinal-duke Alberto of Hapsburg. Later on, he appointed governors.

Filipe I died on 13th September, 1598 and is buried in the Escorial, Madrid.

King Filipe II (1598 - 1621)

Philip III of Spain - The Idle

Born in 1578, the son of Filipe I's fourth marriage with Ana of Austria, he was declared heir of Portugal in 1583, Castile and Leon in 1584, Valencia, Aragon and Catalunha in 1585 and Navarre in 1586.

Married with Margarida of Austria in 1569, they had one son, Filipe.

He ascended the thrones of Spain and Portugal on the death of his father.

The Consol of Portugal, in Madrid, refused to assist in the public ceremonies that celebrated Filipe's ascension, to show his disgust at the political activities of the duke of Lerma, who was in control of the government.

In January, 1600, the government of Portugal was given into the hands of Christopher de Moura, as viceroy.

King Filipe visited Portugal in 1619, against the advice of his Council. He was solemnly received in Lisbon. Taken ill, he returned to Madrid, only to die on the 31st March, 1621. He is buried in the Escorial, Madrid.

King Filipe III (1621 - 1640)

Philip IV of Spain - The Great.

Born in 1605, Filipe III was the son of Filipe II and Margarida of Austria and declared heir to the throne of Portugal in 1619.

His first wife was Isabel de Bourbon.

Feeling himself not yet qualified to reign when he ascended to the throne at the age of 16, he allowed himself to be guided by the most capable man he could find, the Count-duke of Olivares. Olivares wanted to turn Portugal into a Spanish province. Filipe III could not bring himself to dismiss Olivares, so the Count continued as Prime Minister and ran the country whilst Filipe indulged himself in trivial matters.

However, Olivares did send help to Brazil when it came under attack from the Dutch.

Taxes were raised.

Between 1621 and 1633 Portugal was governed by the collegial system of a Council of State, but returned to the rule of a nominated viceroy.

In 1634 the position of vice-queen was given to Margaret of Savoy, the duchess of Mantua.

In 1637, the first stirrings of revolt took place in Evora and the Alentejo and the following year is reckoned the starting point of the Wars of Restoration.

On the 1st December, 1640, the Spanish dominion was overthrown and João IV, the eighth duke of Bragança was acclaimed king.

Filipe III continued to rule Spain until his death in 1665. He is buried in the Escorial, Madrid.

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