Eastern Europe has a confusing variety of different bagpipes. All of them are simple devices, having only one drone or none at all. Many of them have a name which is either a variation of 'Duda' or of 'Gaida'. Some are bellows-blown and some are mouth-blown.
An unusual feature of bagpipes from the more northerly countries of Eastern Europe, such as Poland, Hungary and the Czech Republic, is that the top of the chanter is carved into the shape of goat's head, complete with horns. This is probably because the bag is made from goat skin and may have superstitious overtones. They also use cow horns at the ends of the chanter and drone, or wood or metal shaped like a cow's horn.
Many Eastern European bagpipes have a multiple chanter with two or even three bores running along the one pipe, and two or three reeds. These can be played together by stretching the fingers across to cover both sets of holes simultaneously, or can be played separately like the two chanters of an Italian Zampogna.Continued page 15/17